Biomass N (biomass + n)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Biomass N

  • microbial biomass n

  • Selected Abstracts

    Fifteen years of climate change manipulations alter soil microbial communities in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    Abstract Soil microbial biomass in arctic heaths has been shown to be largely unaffected by treatments simulating climate change with temperature, nutrient and light manipulations. Here, we demonstrate that more than 10 years is needed for development of significant responses, and that changes in microbial biomass are accompanied with strong alterations in microbial community composition. In contrast to slight or nonsignificant responses after 5, 6 and 10 treatment years, 15 years of inorganic NPK fertilizer addition to a subarctic heath had strong effects on the microbial community and, as observed for the first time, warming and shading also led to significant responses, often in opposite direction to the fertilization responses. The effects were clearer in the top 5 cm soil than at the 5,10 cm depth. Fertilization increased microbial biomass C and more than doubled microbial biomass P compared to the non-fertilized plots. However, it only increased microbial biomass N at the 5,10 cm depth. Fertilization increased fungal biomass and the relative abundance of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) markers of gram-positive bacteria. Warming and shading decreased the relative abundance of fungal PLFAs, and shading also altered the composition of the bacterial community. The long time lag in responses may be associated with indirect effects of the gradual changes in the plant biomass and community composition. The contrasting responses to warming and fertilization treatments show that results from fertilizer addition may not be similar to the effects of increased nutrient mineralization and availability following climatic warming. [source]

    Plant and microbial N acquisition under elevated atmospheric CO2 in two mesocosm experiments with annual grasses

    Shuijin Hu
    Abstract The impact of elevated CO2 on terrestrial ecosystem C balance, both in sign or magnitude, is not clear because the resulting alterations in C input, plant nutrient demand and water use efficiency often have contrasting impacts on microbial decomposition processes. One major source of uncertainty stems from the impact of elevated CO2 on N availability to plants and microbes. We examined the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment (ambient+370 ,mol mol,1) on plant and microbial N acquisition in two different mesocosm experiments, using model plant species of annual grasses of Avena barbata and A. fatua, respectively. The A. barbata experiment was conducted in a N-poor sandy loam and the A. fatua experiment was on a N-rich clayey loam. Plant,microbial N partitioning was examined through determining the distribution of a 15N tracer. In the A. barbata experiment, 15N tracer was introduced to a field labeling experiment in the previous year so that 15N predominantly existed in nonextractable soil pools. In the A. fatua experiment, 15N was introduced in a mineral solution [(15NH4)2SO4 solution] during the growing season of A. fatua. Results of both N budget and 15N tracer analyses indicated that elevated CO2 increased plant N acquisition from the soil. In the A. barbata experiment, elevated CO2 increased plant biomass N by ca. 10% but there was no corresponding decrease in soil extractable N, suggesting that plants might have obtained N from the nonextractable organic N pool because of enhanced microbial activity. In the A. fatua experiment, however, the CO2 -led increase in plant biomass N was statistically equal to the reduction in soil extractable N. Although atmospheric CO2 enrichment enhanced microbial biomass C under A. barbata or microbial activity (respiration) under A. fatua, it had no significant effect on microbial biomass N in either experiment. Elevated CO2 increased the colonization of A. fatua roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which coincided with the enhancement of plant competitiveness for soluble soil N. Together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may tighten N cycling through facilitating plant N acquisition. However, it is unknown to what degree results from these short-term microcosm experiments can be extrapolated to field conditions. Long-term studies in less-disturbed soils are needed to determine whether CO2 -enhancement of plant N acquisition can significantly relieve N limitation over plant growth in an elevated CO2 environment. [source]

    Soil N dynamics in relation to leaf litter quality and soil fertility in north-western Patagonian forests

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Patricia Satti
    Summary 1We examined the relationships among soil N dynamics, soil chemistry and leaf litter quality in 28 forest stands dominated by conifers, woody broad-leaf deciduous species or broad-leaf evergreens. Potential net N mineralization, net nitrification and microbial biomass N were used as indicators of soil N dynamics; pH, organic C, total N, exchangeable cations and extractable P as indicators of soil chemistry and N concentration, lignin concentration, C : N ratio and lignin : N ratio in senescent leaves as indicators of leaf litter quality. N dynamics were assessed in two consecutive years with contrasting precipitation. 2Net N mineralization was lower in stands of the three conifers and one of three broad-leaf evergreen species than in stands of the other six broad-leaf species (40,77 vs. 87,250 mg N kg,1 after 16-week incubations) and higher in the wetter year. 3The proportion of N nitrified was high beneath most species regardless of mineralization rates, soil N fertility and leaf litter quality, and was significantly higher for the wetter year. Ammonium was the predominant form of N in three sites affected by seasonal waterlogging and in two sites the predominant form changed from ammonium in the drier year to nitrate during the wetter year, probably due to differences in soil texture affecting soil moisture. 4Net N mineralization was linearly related to microbial biomass N, implying that the microbial activity per biomass unit was quite similar beneath all species. Constant microbial biomass during the wetter year suggested that as mineralization/nitrification increased, there was a higher potential risk of N losses. 5Although the litter lignin : N ratio allowed differentiation of soil N dynamics between broad-leaf species and conifers, its constant value (23,28) in all broad-leaf species made it a poor predictor of the differences found within this group. Across all sites and between broad-leaf species, soil N dynamics were best explained by a combination of leaf litter lignin and soil chemistry indicators, particularly soil total N for net N mineralization and net nitrification, and soil organic C for microbial biomass N. [source]

    Soil N transformations after application of 15N-labeled biomass in incubation experiments with repeated soil drying and rewetting

    Hans-Werner Olfs
    Abstract The effects of repeated soil drying and rewetting on microbial biomass N (Nbio) and mineral N (Nmin) were measured in incubation experiments simulating typical moisture and temperature conditions for soils from temperate climates in the post-harvest period. After application of in vitro15N-labeled fungal biomass to a silty loam, one set of soils was exposed to two drying-rewetting cycles (treatment DR; 14 days to decrease soil moisture to 20,% water-holding capacity (WHC) and subsequently 7 days at 60,% WHC). A control set (treatment CM) was kept at constant moisture conditions (60,% WHC) throughout the incubation. Nbio and Nmin as well as the 15N enrichment of these N pools were measured immediately after addition of 15N-labeled biomass (day 0) and after each change in soil moisture (day 14, 21, 35, 42). Drying and rewetting (DR) resulted in higher Nmin levels compared to CM towards the end of the incubation. Considerable amounts of Nbio were susceptible to mineralization as a result of soil drying (i.e., drying enhanced the turnover of Nbio), and significantly lower Nbio values were found for DR at the end of each drying period. Immediately after biomass incorporation into the soil (day 0), 22,% of the applied 15N was found in the Nmin pool. Some of this 15Nmin must have been derived from dead cells of the applied microbial biomass as only about 80,% of the microbes in the biomass suspension were viable, and only 52,% of the 15Nbio was extractable (using the fumigation-extraction method). The increase in 15Nmin was higher than for unlabeled Nmin, indicating that added labeled biomass was mineralized with a higher rate than native biomass during the first drying period. Overall, the effect of drying and rewetting on soil N turnover was more pronounced for treatment DR compared to CM during the second drying-rewetting cycle, resulting in a higher flush of mineralization and lower microbial biomass N levels. Stickstoffumsatz im Boden nach Applikation 15N-markierter Biomasse in Inkubationsversuchen mit wiederholten Trocknungs-Wiederbefeuchtungszyklen Der Einfluss wiederholter Bodentrocknung und -wiederbefeuchtung auf mikrobiellen Biomasse-N (Nbio) und mineralischen N (Nmin) wurde in Inkubationsversuchen untersucht. Bodenfeuchte und -temperatur wurden entsprechend den typischen Bedingungen in der Nachernte-Periode gemäßigter Klimazonen simuliert. Nach Applikation von in-vitro15N-markierter Biomasse zu einem Krumenboden (schluffiger Lehm) wurde eine Hälfte der Inkubationsgefäße zwei Trocknungs-Wiederbefeuchtungs-Zyklen ausgesetzt (Behandlung DR, d. h., innerhalb von 14 Tagen Absenkung der Bodenfeuchte auf 20,% der Wasserhaltekapazität (WHC) und danach 7 Tage bei 60,% WHC). Die Vergleichsgefäße wurden konstant bei 60,% der WHC inkubiert (Behandlung CM). Nbio und Nmin sowie die 15N-Anreicherung dieser N-Pools wurden sofort nach der Applikation der 15N-markierten Biomasse (Tag 0) und nach jeder Änderung in der Bodenfeuchte (Tag 14, 21, 35, 42) gemessen. Trocknung und Wiederbefeuchtung (DR) resultierte in höheren Nmin -Gehalten im Vergleich zu CM gegen Ende der Inkubation. Bei Bodentrocknung unterlagen höhere Biomasse-Anteile der Mineralisation (d. h., Trocknung forcierte den Umsatz von Nbio), so dass jeweils am Ende der Trocknungsperiode in DR niedrigere Nbio -Gehalte gefunden wurden. Sofort nach der Einarbeitung der Biomasse in den Boden (Tag 0) wurde 22,% des applizierten 15N im Nmin -Pool gefunden. Ein Teil dieses 15Nmin dürfte von bereits toten Zellen der eingesetzten Mikroben-Biomasse stammen, da nur ca. 80,% der Mikroorganismen in der verwendeten Biomasse-Suspension als lebend eingestuft werden konnte und nur 52,% des 15Nbio mittels Fumigations-Extraktions-Methode extrahierbar war. Aus dem deutlicheren Anstieg im 15Nmin im Vergleich zum unmarkierten Nmin kann geschlossen werden, dass während der ersten Trocknungsperiode zugesetzte markierte Biomasse mit einer höheren Rate als bodenbürtige Biomasse mineralisiert wurde. Insgesamt war der Effekt des Trocknens und der Wiederbefeuchtung auf den N-Umsatz im Boden für die Behandlung DR im Vergleich zu CM im zweiten Zyklus ausgeprägter. Dies zeigt sich in einem höheren Mineralisationsschub und in einem niedrigeren Gehalt an Biomasse zum Ende der Inkubation. [source]

    Responses of phosphatases and arylsulfatase in soils to liming and tillage systems

    Mine Ekenler
    Abstract This study was carried out to investigate the long-term influence of lime application and tillage systems (no-till, ridge-till, and chisel plow) on the activities of phosphatases and arylsulfatase in soils at four research sites in Iowa, USA. The activities of the following enzymes were studied: acid and alkaline phosphatases, phosphodiesterase, and arylsulfatase at their optimal pH values. With the exception of acid phosphatase, which was significantly (P < 0.001) but negatively correlated with soil pH (r ranged from ,0.65** to ,0.98***), the activities of other enzymes were significantly (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with soil pH, with r values ranging from 0.65** to 0.99*** for alkaline phosphatase, from 0.79*** to 0.97*** for phosphodiesterase, and from 0.66*** to 0.97*** for arylsulfatase. The , activity/, pH values were calculated to determine the sensitivity of each enzyme to changes in soil pH. Acid phosphatase was the most sensitive and arylsulfatase the least sensitive to changes in soil pH. Activities of the enzymes were greater in the 0 , 5,cm depth samples than those in 0 , 15,cm samples under no-till treatment. With the exception of acid phosphatase, enzyme activities were mostly significantly (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with microbial biomass C (Cmic), with r values ranging from 0.28 (not significant) to 0.83*** and with microbial biomass N (Nmic), with r values ranging from 0.31 (not significant) to 0.94***. Liming and tillage systems significantly affected the activities of some enzymes but not others, as was evident from the specific activity values (g of p -nitrophenol released kg,1 Corg h,1). Reaktionen von Phosphatasen und Arylsulfatasen in Böden auf Kalkung und differenzierte Bodenbearbeitung In vier langjährigen Feldversuchen in Iowa, USA, wurde der Einfluss von Kalkung und differenzierter Bodenbearbeitung (Direktsaatverfahren, reduzierte Bearbeitung und Grubberverfahren) auf die Aktivitäten von Phosphatasen und Arylsulfatase in Böden untersucht. Die Aktivitäten von saurer und alkalischer Phosphatase, Phosphodiesterase und Arylsulfatase wurden unter dem optimalen pH-Wert für das jeweilige Enzym bestimmt. Mit Ausnahme der sauren Phosphataseaktivität, welche signifikant negativ (P < 0.001) mit dem pH-Wert des Bodens korreliert war (r = ,0.65** bis ,0.98***), waren die Aktivitäten der anderen Enzyme signifikant (P < 0.001) positiv mit dem Boden-pH korreliert. Dabei variierten die Korrelationskoeffizienten zwischen r = 0.65** und 0.99*** für die alkalische Phosphatase, zwischen r = 0.79*** und 0.97*** für die Phosphodiesterase und zwischen r = 0.66*** und 0.97*** für die Arylsulfatase. Die Verhältnisse von , Aktivität / , pH-Wert wurden berechnet, um die Empfindlichkeit der untersuchten Enzyme gegenüber pH-Wertveränderungen im Boden festzustellen. Dabei erwies sich die saure Phosphatase als das emfindlichste und die Arylsulfatase als das am wenigsten emfindlichste Enzym. In der Direktsaatvariante waren die Enzymaktivitäten in 0 , 5,cm Bodentiefe höher als in 0 , 15,cm Tiefe. Mit Ausnahme der sauren Phosphatase waren die Enzymaktivitäten signifikant positiv mit dem mikrobiell gebundenen C (Cmik) und N (Nmik) korreliert. Die Korrelationskoeffizienten variierten dabei zwischen r = 0.28 (nicht signifikant) und 0.83*** für Cmik und zwischen r = 0.31 (nicht signifikant) und 0.94*** für Nmik. Die spezifischen Enzymaktivitäten (g p -Nitrophenol kg,1 Corg h,1) zeigten, dass die Aktivitäten von einigen Enzymen signifikant von Kalkung und Bodenbearbeitungssystem abhängig waren. [source]

    Soil biochemical and chemical changes in relation to mature spruce (Picea abies) forest conversion and regeneration

    Zheke Zhong
    Abstract To investigate soil changes from forest conversion and regeneration, soil net N mineralization, potential nitrification, microbial biomass N, L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase, and other chemical and biological properties were examined in three adjacent stands: mature pure and dense Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) (110 yr) (stand I), mature Norway spruce mixed with young beech (Fagus sylvatica) (5 yr) (stand II), and young Norway spruce (16 yr) (stand III). The latter two stands were converted or regenerated from the mature Norway spruce stand as former. The studied soils were characterized as having a very low pH value (2.9 , 3.5 in 0.01 M CaCl2), a high total N content (1.06 , 1.94,%), a high metabolic quotient (qCO2) (6.7 , 16.9 g CO2 kg,1 h,1), a low microbial biomass N (1.1 , 3.3,% of total N, except LOf1 at stand III), and a relatively high net N mineralization (175 , 1213 mg N kg,1 in LOf1 and Of2, 4 weeks incubation). In the converted forest (stand II), C,:,N ratio and qCO2 values in the LOf1 layer decreased significantly, and base saturation and exchangeable Ca showed a somewhat increment in mineral soil. In the regenerated forest (stand III), the total N storage in the surface layers decreased by 30,%. The surface organic layers (LOf1, Of2) possessed a very high net N mineralization (1.5 , 3 times higher than those in other two stands), high microbial biomass (C, N), and high basal respiration and qCO2 values. Meanwhile, in the Oh layer, the base saturation and the exchangeable Ca decreased. All studied substrates showed little net nitrification after the first period of incubation (2 weeks). In the later period of incubation (7 , 11 weeks), a considerable amount of NO3 -N accumulated (20 , 100,% of total cumulative mineral N) in the soils from the two pure spruce stands (I, III). In contrast, there was almost no net NO3 -N accumulation in the soils from the converted mixed stand (II) indicating that there was a difference in microorganisms in the two types of forest ecosystems. Soil microbial biomass N, mineral N, net N mineralization, L-asparaginase, and L-glutaminase were correlated and associated with forest management. Chemische und biochemische Veränderungen der Bodeneigenschaften durch Verjüngung und Waldumbau eines Fichtenaltbestandes Um die durch den Waldumbau und die Regeneration bedingten Standortsveränderungen zu untersuchen, wurden die Netto-Stickstoffmineralisierung, die potenzielle Nitrifikation, der mikrobiell gebundene Stickstoff (Nmic), L-Asparaginase, L-Glutaminase sowie weitere chemische und biologische Parameter an drei benachbarten Standorten untersucht: Standort I, reiner Fichtenaltbestand (Picea abies (L.) Karst ,110 Jahre); Standort II, Fichtenaltbestand mit Buchenunterbau (Fagus sylvatica , 5 Jahre); Standort III, reine Fichtenaufforstung (16 Jahre). Die Standorte II und III entstanden infolge des Waldumbaus aus reinen Fichtenaltbeständen. Die untersuchten Böden sind gekennzeichnet durch sehr niedrige pH-Werte (pH(H2O) 3, 7 , 4, 2, pH (CaCl2) 2, 9 , 3, 5), hohe Gesamtstickstoffgehalte (1, 06 , 1, 94,%), hohe metabolische Quotienten (6, 7,16, 9g CO2 kg,1 h,1), geringe Nmic -Gehalte (1, 1 , 3, 3,% des Gesamt-N, ausgenommen LOf1 von Standort III) und eine relativ hohe N-Nettomineralisation (175 , 1213 mg N Kg,1 in LOf1 und Of2, nach 4 Wochen Inkubation). Am Standort II nahm das C,:,N-Verhältnis und der qCO2 im LOf1 -Horizont deutlich ab, wohingegen der Gehalt an austauschbarem Ca sowie die Basensättigung im Mineralboden geringfügig zunahmen. Am Standort III nahm der N-Vorrat (Auflagehumus + Mineralboden 0 , 10,cm) um 30,% ab. In den LOf1 - und Of2 -Lagen des Auflagehumus dieses Standortes traten eine hohe N-Nettomineralisation (1, 5- bis 3fach höher als in den Standorten I und II), hohe Gehalte an mikrobiell gebundenem C und N, eine erhöhte Basalatmung sowie erhöhte qCO2 -Werte auf. In den Oh-Lagen hingegen nahm die Basensättigung ab. Alle untersuchten Standorte zeigten in der ersten Periode der Inkubation (0 bis 2 Wochen) eine geringe Netto-Nitrifikation. An den Standorten I und III fand in der späteren Periode (7. bis 11. Woche) eine Anreicherung an NO3 (20 , 100,% des gesamten mineralischen N-Vorrates) statt. Im Gegensatz dazu wurde am Standort II keine NO3 -N- Anreicherung festgestellt. Dies deutet auf einen Unterschied in der Zusammensetzung der mikrobiellen Gemeinschaften in den zwei verschiedenen Forstökosystemen hin. Nmic, N-Nettomineralisation, L-Asparaginase und L-Glutaminase korrelieren miteinander und zeigen eine enge Beziehung zu den Bewirtschaftungsformen. [source]

    Diffusion technique for 15N and inorganic N analysis of low-N aqueous solutions and Kjeldahl digests,

    Rui Rui Chen
    Diffusion of ammonia is a common sample preparation method for the stable isotope analysis of inorganic nitrogen in aqueous solution. Classical diffusion methods usually require 6,12 days of diffusion and often focus on 15N/14N analysis only. More recent studies have discussed whether complete N recovery was necessary for the precise analysis of stable N isotope ratios. In this paper we present a newly revised diffusion technique that allows correct and simultaneous determination of total N and 15N at% from aqueous solutions and Kjeldahl digests, with N concentrations down to sub-0.5-mg,N,L,1 levels, and it is tested under different conditions of 15N isotope labelling. With the modification described, the diffusion time was reduced to 72,h, while the ratios of measured and expected 15N at% were greater than 99% and the simultaneous recovery of total N was >95%. Analysis of soil microbial biomass N and its 15N/14N ratio is one of the most important applications of this diffusion technique. An experiment with soil extracts spiked with 15N-labelled yeast showed that predigestion was necessary to prevent serious N loss during Kjeldahl digestion of aqueous samples (i.e. soil extracts). The whole method of soil microbial biomass N preparation for 15N/14N analysis included chloroform fumigation, predigestion, Kjeldahl digestion and diffusion. An experiment with soil spiked with 15N-labelled yeast was carried out to evaluate the method. Results showed a highly significant correlation of recovered and added N, with the same recovery rate (0.21) of both total N and 15N. A kN value of 0.25 was obtained based on the data. In conclusion, the diffusion method works for soil extracts and microbial biomass N determination and hence could be useful in many types of soil/water studies. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]