Biomass Estimates (biomass + estimate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of glucose, cellulose, and humic acids on soil microbial eco-physiology

Oliver Dilly
Abstract Microbial eco-physiology in soils is regulated by substrate quality of the organic matter. This regulation was studied for a forest and an agricultural soil by the combination of activity and biomass techniques. Soil respiration was stimulated by the substrate quality in the order, humic acid < cellulose < glucose over 20 days. Concurrently, substrate addition increased the respiratory quotient (RQ), defined as the ratio of mol CO2 evolution per mol O2 uptake. Anabolic processes were mainly induced by glucose addition. Soil preconditioned with glucose showed a decrease in the RQ value during glucose-induced microbial growth in comparison to non-amended control. The decrease in the RQ value induced by preconditioning with cellulose and humic acid was lower. Glucose, cellulose, and humic acid addition modified the microbial biomass as estimated by fumigation-extraction (FE), substrate-induced respiration (SIR), and ATP content. Since each biomass estimate refers to specific microbial components, shifts in microbial eco-physiology and community structure induced by substrate quality were reflected by SIR : FE and SIR : ATP ratios. The active and glucose-responsive biomass in the forest soil which was earlier suggested as being dominated by K-strategists was increased in the order, humic acid < cellulose < glucose. Einfluss von Zugaben von Glucose-, Cellulose und Huminsäuren auf die mikrobielle Ökophysiologie im Boden Die Ökophysiologie der mikrobiellen Gemeinschaften in Böden ist abhängig von der Substratqualität der organischen Substanz. Dies wurde nach Zugabe von Substraten für zwei Böden, einer unter Buchenwald und einer unter Acker, anhand einer Kombination von biochemischen und physiologischen Aktivitäts- und Biomassetechniken analysiert. Die Substratzugabe erhöhte die Bodenatmung über 20 Tage hinweg in der Reihenfolge Huminsäuren < Cellulose < Glucose. Gleichzeitig wurde auch der respiratorische Quotient (RQ), definiert als das Verhältnis von CO2 -Freisetzung zu O2 -Aufnahme, durch die Substratzugabe erhöht und anabolische Prozesse induziert. Das mikrobielle Wachstum wurde in erster Linie durch Glucose stimuliert. Der mit Glucose als Substrat versetzte Boden zeigte eine Abnahme des RQ während eines glucose-induzierten Wachstums im Vergleich zur Kontrolle. Eine solche Abnahme war bei der Huminsäure- und Cellulosebehandlung geringer. Die Zugabe von Glucose, Cellulose und Huminsäuren veränderte schließlich die mikrobielle Biomasse, welche mittels Fumigation-Extraktion, substratinduzierter Atmung und ATP-Gehalt ermittelt wurde. Da jede Technik spezifische mikrobielle Komponenten erfasst, wurden Veränderungen in der mikrobiellen Ökophysiologie und der Struktur der mikrobiellen Gemeinschaften durch die Substrate induziert, die in dem SIR:FE- und SIR:ATP-Verhältnis erkennbar waren. Die aktive und glucoseaktivierbare Biomasse in einem von K-Strategen dominierten Waldboden nahm von Huminsäure-, über Cellulose- und Glucosezugabe hin zu. [source]

Variation in wood density determines spatial patterns inAmazonian forest biomass

Timothy R. Baker
Abstract Uncertainty in biomass estimates is one of the greatest limitations to models of carbon flux in tropical forests. Previous comparisons of field-based estimates of the aboveground biomass (AGB) of trees greater than 10 cm diameter within Amazonia have been limited by the paucity of data for western Amazon forests, and the use of site-specific methods to estimate biomass from inventory data. In addition, the role of regional variation in stand-level wood specific gravity has not previously been considered. Using data from 56 mature forest plots across Amazonia, we consider the relative roles of species composition (wood specific gravity) and forest structure (basal area) in determining variation in AGB. Mean stand-level wood specific gravity, on a per stem basis, is 15.8% higher in forests in central and eastern, compared with northwestern Amazonia. This pattern is due to the higher diversity and abundance of taxa with high specific gravity values in central and eastern Amazonia, and the greater diversity and abundance of taxa with low specific gravity values in western Amazonia. For two estimates of AGB derived using different allometric equations, basal area explains 51.7% and 63.4%, and stand-level specific gravity 45.4% and 29.7%, of the total variation in AGB. The variation in specific gravity is important because it determines the regional scale, spatial pattern of AGB. When weighting by specific gravity is included, central and eastern Amazon forests have significantly higher AGB than stands in northwest or southwest Amazonia. The regional-scale pattern of species composition therefore defines a broad gradient of AGB across Amazonia. [source]

Spawning dynamics and biomass estimates of an anchovy Engraulis australis population in contrasting gulf and shelf environments

W. F. Dimmlich
The spawning biomass of Australian anchovy Engraulis australis in gulf and shelf waters of South Australia was compared using the daily egg production method (DEPM). The total survey area was 128 700 km2 with recorded spawning areas in gulf and shelf waters of 4898 and 44 618 km2, respectively. High egg densities in the warm, shallow gulf waters were produced by small, young (<1 year old) E. australis that spawned relatively small batches of eggs (c. 855) approximately every 3 days. In cooler, deeper shelf waters, where larger, older E. australis are found, lower egg densities occurred despite individuals producing much larger batches of eggs (c. 15 572) approximately every 7 days. In shelf waters, the highest densities were recorded at inshore sampling stations. Spawning appeared to peak between 0000 and 0100 hours. Females were more abundant than males in samples from both gulf and shelf waters with sex ratios of 0·61 and 0·56, respectively. The spawning biomass of E. australis in shelf waters was 101 522 t, whereas the estimate for gulf waters was 25 374 t. Due to the differences in mean size of the spawning females, however, c. 6 × 109E. australis were present in each region. The results support the hypothesis that variability in habitat conditions may directly influence E. australis reproduction. A large reserve of young fish in the relatively stable gulf environment may increase the resilience of the E. australis population in South Australia to unfavourable interannual changes in offshore environmental conditions. [source]

Depth-dependent swimbladder compression in herring Clupea harengus observed using magnetic resonance imaging

S. M. M. Fässler
Changes in swimbladder morphology in an Atlantic herring Clupea harengus with pressure were examined by magnetic resonance imaging of a dead fish in a purpose-built pressure chamber. Swimbladder volume changed with pressure according to Boyle's Law, but compression in the lateral aspect was greater than in the dorsal aspect. This uneven compression has a reduced effect on acoustic backscattering than symmetrical compression and would elicit less pronounced effects of depth on acoustic biomass estimates of C. harengus. [source]

Age-Dependent Radial Increases in Wood Specific Gravity of Tropical Pioneers in Costa Rica

BIOTROPICA, Issue 5 2010
G. Bruce Williamson
ABSTRACT Wood specific gravity is the single best descriptor of wood functional properties and tree life-history traits, and it is the most important variable in estimating carbon stocks in forests. Tropical pioneer trees produce wood of increasing specific gravity across the trunk radius as they grow in stature. Here, we tested whether radial increases in wood specific gravity were dependent on a tree's diameter or its age by comparing trees of different diameters within cohorts. We cored trunks of four pioneer species in naturally regenerating, even-aged stands in the lowland, wet forests of Costa Rica. For each core, specific gravity was determined for 1-cm radial wood segments, pith to bark. Increases across the radius were evident in all four species studied, and in four different stands for one species. For any given species in a given stand, the rate of radial increase in specific gravity as a function of radial distance from the pith was greater in smaller diameter trees. As the trees in a stand represent a colonizing cohort, these results strongly suggest that the radial increases in specific gravity in lowland pioneers are associated with tree age, not with tree diameter. Furthermore, the specific gravity of the outermost wood was not associated with tree radius, further negating size dependence. One consequence of these results is that species-specific biomass estimates for trees in secondary forests are likely to be confounded by age, as diameter alone may be a poor indicator of specific gravity in individual trees for pioneers of tropical wet forests. Abstract in Spanish is available at [source]

Game Vertebrate Densities in Hunted and Nonhunted Forest Sites in Manu National Park, Peru

BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2010
Whaldener Endo
ABSTRACT Manu National Park of southern Peru is one of the most renowned protected areas in the world, yet large-bodied vertebrate surveys conducted to date have been restricted to Cocha Cashu Biological Station, a research station covering <0.06 percent of the 1.7 Mha park. Manu Park is occupied by >460 settled Matsigenka Amerindians, 300,400 isolated Matsigenka, and several, little-known groups of isolated hunter,gatherers, yet the impact of these native Amazonians on game vertebrate populations within the park remains poorly understood. On the basis of 1495 km of standardized line-transect censuses, we present density and biomass estimates for 23 mammal, bird, and reptile species for seven lowland and upland forest sites in Manu Park, including Cocha Cashu. We compare these estimates between hunted and nonhunted sites within Manu Park, and with other Neotropical forest sites. Manu Park safeguards some of the most species-rich and highest biomass assemblages of arboreal and terrestrial mammals ever recorded in Neotropical forests, most likely because of its direct Andean influence and high levels of soil fertility. Relative to Barro Colorado Island, seed predators and arboreal folivores in Manu are rare, and generalist frugivores specializing on mature fruit pulp are abundant. The impact of such a qualitative shift in the vertebrate community on the dynamics of plant regeneration, and therefore, on our understanding of tropical plant ecology, must be profound. Despite a number of external threats, Manu Park continues to serve as a baseline against which other Neotropical forests can be gauged. Abstract in Spanish is available at [source]