Biomass Components (biomass + component)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Determination of Biomass Composition of Catharanthusroseus Hairy Roots for Metabolic Flux Analysis

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 6 2006
Ganesh Sriram
Metabolic flux analysis is a powerful diagnostic tool in metabolic engineering, and determination of biomass composition is indispensable to accurate flux evaluation. We report the elemental and biomolecular composition of Catharanthus roseus hairy roots, a pharmaceutically significant plant system and an important metabolic engineering target. The molecular formula of the organic material in the hairy roots was C12.0H22.7N0.4O7.6 during mid-exponential growth. The abundances of lipids, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, starch, protein, proteinogenic amino acids, mineral ash, and moisture in the biomass were quantified. Analysis of water-soluble components of the biomass with 1-D 13C and 2-D [1H,1H] correlation (COSY) NMR spectroscopy revealed that the water-soluble components were composed almost entirely of ,-glucans. Agropine, a frequently reported hairy root biomass component, was not detected. Our measurements of the biomass components quantified 83.6 ± 9.3% (w/w) of the biomass. Together with previously reported abundances of indole alkaloids, we accounted for at least 85.9 ± 11.6% (w/w) of the carbon in the biomass, which enabled the precise determination of 12 biomass synthesis fluxes. [source]


Structural biomass partitioning in regrowth and undisturbed mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa): implications for bioenergy uses

GCB BIOENERGY, Issue 1 2010
R. JAMES ANSLEY
Abstract Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) which grows on grasslands and rangelands in southwestern USA may have potential as a bioenergy feedstock because of existing standing biomass and regrowth potential. However, regrowth mesquite physiognomy is highly different from undisturbed mesquite physiognomy and little is known regarding growth rates and structural biomass allocation in regrowth mesquite. We compared canopy architecture, aboveground biomass and relative allocation of biomass components in regrowth (RG) trees of different known ages with undisturbed (UD) trees of similar canopy height to each RG age class. RG trees in most age classes (2,12 years old) had greater canopy area, leaf area, basal stem number, twig (<0.5 cm diameter) mass and small stem (0.5,3 cm diameter) mass than UD trees of the same height. Large stem (>3 cm diameter) mass was similar between RG and UD trees in all height classes. Ages of UD trees were determined after harvest and further comparisons were made between age, canopy structure and biomass in RG and UD trees. Relationships between age and total mass, age and height, and age and canopy area indicated a faster growth rate in RG than in UD trees. Large stem mass as a percentage of total tree mass accumulated more rapidly with age in RG than UD trees. Leaf area index and leaf : twig mass ratio were maintained near 1 in all RG and UD trees. Regrowth potential may be one of the most important features of mesquite in consideration as a bioenergy feedstock. [source]


Below-ground biomass and productivity of a grazed site and a neighbouring ungrazed exclosure in a grassland in central Argentina

AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
Eduardo Pucheta
Abstract We estimated the below-ground net plant productivity (BNPP) of different biomass components in an intensively and continuously 45-ha grazed site and in a neighbouring exclosure ungrazed for 16 years for a natural mountain grassland in central Argentina. We measured approximately twice as much dead below-ground biomass in the grazed site as in the ungrazed site, with a strong concentration of total below-ground biomass towards the upper 10 cm of the soil layer in both sites. The main contribution to total live biomass was accounted for by very fine (<0.5 mm) and fine roots (0.5,1.0 mm) both at the grazed (79%) and at the ungrazed (81%) sites. We measured more dead biomass for almost all root components, more live biomass of rhizomes, tap roots and bulbs, and less live biomass of thicker roots (>1 mm) in the grazed site. The seasonal variation of total live below-ground biomass mainly reflected climate, with the growing season being limited to the warmer and wetter portion of the year, but such variation was higher in the grazed site. Using different methods of estimation of BNPP, we estimated maximum values of 1241 and 723 g m,2 year,1 for the grazed and ungrazed sites, respectively. We estimated that very fine root productivity was almost twice as high at the grazed site as at the ungrazed one, despite the fact that both sites had similar total live biomass, and root turnover rate was twofold at the grazed site. [source]


Microalgae for the production of bulk chemicals and biofuels

BIOFUELS, BIOPRODUCTS AND BIOREFINING, Issue 3 2010
Rene H Wijffels
Abstract The feasibility of microalgae production for biodiesel was discussed. Although algae are not yet produced at large scale for bulk applications, there are opportunities to develop this process in a sustainable way. It remains unlikely, however, that the process will be developed for biodiesel as the only end product from microalgae. In order to develop a more sustainable and economically feasible process, all biomass components (e.g. proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) should be used and therefore biorefining of microalgae is very important for the selective separation and use of the functional biomass components. If biorefining of microalgae is applied, lipids should be fractionated into lipids for biodiesel, lipids as a feedstock for the chemical industry and ,-3 fatty acids, proteins and carbohydrates for food, feed and bulk chemicals, and the oxygen produced should be recovered also. If, in addition, production of algae is done on residual nutrient feedstocks and CO2, and production of microalgae is done on a large scale against low production costs, production of bulk chemicals and fuels from microalgae will become economically feasible. In order to obtain that, a number of bottlenecks need to be removed and a multidisciplinary approach in which systems biology, metabolic modeling, strain development, photobioreactor design and operation, scale-up, biorefining, integrated production chain, and the whole system design (including logistics) should be addressed. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd [source]


Determination of Biomass Composition of Catharanthusroseus Hairy Roots for Metabolic Flux Analysis

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 6 2006
Ganesh Sriram
Metabolic flux analysis is a powerful diagnostic tool in metabolic engineering, and determination of biomass composition is indispensable to accurate flux evaluation. We report the elemental and biomolecular composition of Catharanthus roseus hairy roots, a pharmaceutically significant plant system and an important metabolic engineering target. The molecular formula of the organic material in the hairy roots was C12.0H22.7N0.4O7.6 during mid-exponential growth. The abundances of lipids, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, starch, protein, proteinogenic amino acids, mineral ash, and moisture in the biomass were quantified. Analysis of water-soluble components of the biomass with 1-D 13C and 2-D [1H,1H] correlation (COSY) NMR spectroscopy revealed that the water-soluble components were composed almost entirely of ,-glucans. Agropine, a frequently reported hairy root biomass component, was not detected. Our measurements of the biomass components quantified 83.6 ± 9.3% (w/w) of the biomass. Together with previously reported abundances of indole alkaloids, we accounted for at least 85.9 ± 11.6% (w/w) of the carbon in the biomass, which enabled the precise determination of 12 biomass synthesis fluxes. [source]


Structure and Biomass of Four Lowland Neotropical Forests

BIOTROPICA, Issue 1 2004
Saara J. DeWalt
ABSTRACT We contrasted the structure and biomass of four lowland Neotropical forests (La Selva, Costa Rica; Barro Colorado Island, Panama; Cocha Cashu, Peru; and KM41, Brazil) to determine if commonalities exist within and among forests differing in latitude, rainfall, seasonality, and soil fertility. We examined the effect of soil fertility specifically by measuring the density and basal area of trees, lianas, and palms on two soil types differing in fertility at each site. We used allometric relationships to estimate the contribution of the various life-forms to total aboveground biomass (AGB) and compared two relationships for trees 30 cm diameter or greater. Estimated liana density and AGB were similar among sites, but the density and AGB of trees and palms, estimated using diameter alone, differed significantly. Basal area and AGB of trees 10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) or greater differed among forests and averaged 30.2 m2/ha and 250 Mg/ha, respectively. Cocha Cashu and KM41 had higher tree basal area and AGB than La Selva or Barro Colorado Island. Across forests, lianas and small trees (1,10 cm DBH) each contributed between 4 and 5 percent of the total AGB and small palms contributed ca 1 percent. Many forest inventories ignore lianas, as well as trees and palms less than 10 cm DBH, and therefore underestimate AGB by ca 10 percent. Soil type had little influence on the forest structure within sites, except at Cocha Cashu where total AGB was much higher and liana density much lower on the more fertile old floodplain Entisols than the serra firme Oxisols. Although total stem density, basal area, and some biomass components differed significantly among forests, they seemed less variable than other quantitative measures (e.g., species richness). RESUMEN Contrastamos la estructura y la biomasa de cuatro bosques de bajura Neotropicales (La Selva, Costa Rica; Isla Barro Colorado, Panamá; Cocha Cashu, Perú; y KM41, Brasil) para determinar si existen patrones comunes entre bosques que difieren en la latitud, en la lluvia total, en la estacionalidad, y en la fertilidad de suelo. Examinamos el efecto de la fertilidad de suelo en cada sitio específicamente midiendo el área basal y densidad de árboles, lianas, y palmas en dos tipos de suelo que difieren en fertilidad. Usamos ecuaciones alométricas para estimar la contributión relativa de las varias formas de vida a la biomasa aérea (AGB) y comparamos dos ecuaciones para estimar biomasa con base en árboles , 30 cm diámetro. La densidad y AGB estimada de lianas fueron similares entre sitios, pero la densidad y AGB de árboles y palmas estimada en base solamente a diámetros fueron significativamente distintas. El área basal y la AGB de árboles , 10 cm diámetro a la altura de pecho (DAP) difirieron entre bosques y promediaron 30.2 m2/ ha y 250 Mg/ha. En Cocha Cashu y KM41 observamos mayor área basal y AGB para árboles que en La Selva o la Isla Barro Colorado. En general lianas y árboles pequeños (1,10 cm DAP) contribuyeron entre 4,5 porciento del AGB total cada uno y palmas pequeñas contribuyeron alrededor de 1 porciento. Muchos inventarios del bosque ignoran tanto las lianas como los árboles y palmas <10 cm DAP y por lo tanto subestiman AGB en alrededor de un 10 porciento. El tipo del suelo mostró una influencia pequena en la estructura del bosque dentro de sitios, menos en Cocha Cashu donde AGB total fue mucho más alto y densidad de lianas y palmas fue más bajo en los Entisols de mayor fertilidad que los Ultisols de menor fertilidad. Aunque la densidad de tallos, área basal, y algunos componentes de la biomasa difirieron significativamente entre bosques, estos parecieron menos variables que otras medidas cuanti-tativas (por ejemplo, riqueza de especies). [source]