Biomass Carbon (biomass + carbon)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Biomass Carbon

  • microbial biomass carbon

  • Selected Abstracts

    Perchlorate reduction by a novel chemolithoautotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium

    Husen Zhang
    Summary Water treatment technologies are needed that can remove perchlorate from drinking water without introducing organic chemicals that stimulate bacterial growth in water distribution systems. Hydrogen is an ideal energy source for bacterial degradation of perchlorate as it leaves no organic residue and is sparingly soluble. We describe here the isolation of a perchlorate-respiring, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium (Dechloromonas sp. strain HZ) that grows with carbon dioxide as sole carbon source. Strain HZ is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped facultative anaerobe that was isolated from a gas-phase anaerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor treating perchlorate-contaminated groundwater. The ability of strain HZ to grow autotrophically with carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source was confirmed by demonstrating that biomass carbon (100.9%) was derived from CO2. Chemolithotrophic growth with hydrogen was coupled with complete reduction of perchlorate (10 mM) to chloride with a maximum doubling time of 8.9 h. Strain HZ also grew using acetate as the electron donor and chlorate, nitrate, or oxygen (but not sulphate) as an electron acceptor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence placed strain HZ in the genus Dechloromonas within the , subgroup of the Proteobacteria. The study of this and other novel perchlorate-reducing bacteria may lead to new, safe technologies for removing perchlorate and other chemical pollutants from drinking water. [source]

    Calibration model of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen concentrations in soils using ultraviolet absorbance and soil organic matter

    X. Xu
    Summary There is a need for a rapid, simple and reliable method of determining soil microbial biomass (SMB) for all soils because traditional methods are laborious. Earlier studies have reported that SMB-C and -N concentrations in grassland and arable soils can be estimated by measurement of UV absorbance in soil extracts. However, these previous studies focused on soils with small soil organic matter (SOM) contents, and there was no consideration of SOM content as a covariate to improve the estimation. In this study, using tropical and temperate forest soils with a wide range of total C (5,204 mg C g,1 soil) and N (1,12 mg N g,1 soil) contents and pH values (4.1,5.9), it was found that increase in UV absorbance of soil extracts at 280 nm (UV280) after fumigation could account for 92,96% of the variance in estimates of the SMB-C and -N concentrations measured by chloroform fumigation and extraction (P < 0.001). The data were combined with those of earlier workers to calibrate UV-based regression models for all the soils, by taking into account their varying SOM content. The validation analysis of the calibration models indicated that the SMB-C and -N concentrations in the 0,5 cm forest soils simulated by using the increase in UV280 and SOM could account for 86,93% of the variance in concentrations determined by chloroform fumigation and extraction (P < 0.001). The slope values of linear regression equations between measured and simulated values were 0.94 ± 0.03 and 0.94 ± 0.04, respectively, for the SMB-C and -N. However, simulation using the regression equations obtained by using only the data for forest profile soils gave less good agreement with measured values. Hence, the calibration models obtained by using the increase in UV280 and SOM can give a rapid, simple and reliable method of determining SMB for all soils. [source]

    Enhanced litter input rather than changes in litter chemistry drive soil carbon and nitrogen cycles under elevated CO2: a microcosm study

    Abstract Elevated CO2 has been shown to stimulate plant productivity and change litter chemistry. These changes in substrate availability may then alter soil microbial processes and possibly lead to feedback effects on N availability. However, the strength of this feedback, and even its direction, remains unknown. Further, uncertainty remains whether sustained increases in net primary productivity will lead to increased long-term C storage in soil. To examine how changes in litter chemistry and productivity under elevated CO2 influence microbial activity and soil C formation, we conducted a 230-day microcosm incubation with five levels of litter addition rate that represented 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.4 and 1.8 × litterfall rates observed in the field for aspen stand growing under control treatments at the Aspen FACE experiment in Rhinelander, WI, USA. Litter and soil samples were collected from the corresponding field control and elevated CO2 treatment after trees were exposed to elevated CO2 (560 ppm) for 7 years. We found that small decreases in litter [N] under elevated CO2 had minor effects on microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Increasing litter addition rates resulted in linear increase in total C and new C (C from added litter) that accumulated in whole soil as well as in the high density soil fraction (HDF), despite higher cumulative C loss by respiration. Total N retained in whole soil and in HDF also increased with litter addition rate as did accumulation of new C per unit of accumulated N. Based on our microcosm comparisons and regression models, we expected that enhanced C inputs rather than changes in litter chemistry would be the dominant factor controlling soil C levels and turnover at the current level of litter production rate (230 g C m,2 yr,1 under ambient CO2). However, our analysis also suggests that the effects of changes in biochemistry caused by elevated CO2 could become significant at a higher level of litter production rate, with a trend of decreasing total C in HDF, new C in whole soil, as well as total N in whole soil and HDF. [source]

    Quantifying uncertainty in estimates of C emissions from above-ground biomass due to historic land-use change to cropping in Australia

    Damian J. Barrett
    Abstract Quantifying continental scale carbon emissions from the oxidation of above-ground plant biomass following land-use change (LUC) is made difficult by the lack of information on how much biomass was present prior to vegetation clearing and on the timing and location of historical LUC. The considerable spatial variability of vegetation and the uncertainty of this variability leads to difficulties in predicting biomass C density (tC ha,1) prior to LUC. The issue of quantifying uncertainties in the estimation of land based sources and sinks of CO2, and the feasibility of reducing these uncertainties by further sampling, is critical information required by governments world-wide for public policy development on climate change issues. A quantitative statistical approach is required to calculate confidence intervals (the level of certainty) of estimated cleared above-ground biomass. In this study, a set of high-quality observations of steady state above-ground biomass from relatively undisturbed ecological sites across the Australian continent was combined with vegetation, topographic, climatic and edaphic data sets within a Geographical Information System. A statistical model was developed from the data set of observations to predict potential biomass and the standard error of potential biomass for all 0.05° (approximately 5 × 5 km) land grid cells of the continent. In addition, the spatial autocorrelation of observations and residuals from the statistical model was examined. Finally, total C emissions due to historic LUC to cultivation and cropping were estimated by combining the statistical model with a data set of fractional cropland area per land grid cell, fAc (Ramankutty & Foley 1998). Total C emissions from loss of above-ground biomass due to cropping since European colonization of Australia was estimated to be 757 MtC. These estimates are an upper limit because the predicted steady state biomass may be less than the above-ground biomass immediately prior to LUC because of disturbance. The estimated standard error of total C emissions was calculated from the standard error of predicted biomass, the standard error of fAc and the spatial autocorrelation of biomass. However, quantitative estimates of the standard error of fAc were unavailable. Thus, two scenarios were developed to examine the effect of error in fAc on the error in total C emissions. In the first scenario, in which fAc was regarded as accurate (i.e. a coefficient of variation, CV, of fAc = 0.0), the 95% confidence interval of the continental C emissions was 379,1135 MtC. In the second scenario, a 50% error in estimated cropland area was assumed (a CV of fAc = 0.50) and the estimated confidence interval increased to between 350 and 1294 MtC. The CV of C emissions for these two scenarios was 25% and 29%. Thus, while accurate maps of land-use change contribute to decreasing uncertainty in C emissions from LUC, the major source of this uncertainty arises from the prediction accuracy of biomass C density. It is argued that, even with large sample numbers, the high cost of sampling biomass carbon may limit the uncertainty of above-ground biomass to about a CV of 25%. [source]

    Carbon limitation in trees

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Christian Körner
    Summary 1The ongoing enrichment of the atmosphere with CO2 raises the question of whether growth of forest trees, which represent close to 90% of the global biomass carbon, is still carbon limited at current concentrations of close to 370 p.p.m. As photosynthesis of C3 plants is not CO2 -saturated at such concentrations, enhanced ,source activity' of leaves could stimulate ,sink activity' (i.e. growth) of plants, provided other resources and developmental controls permit. I explore current levels of non-structural carbon in trees in natural forests in order to estimate the potential for a carbon-driven stimulation of growth. 2The concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in tree tissues is considered a measure of carbon shortage or surplus for growth. A periodic reduction of NSC pools indicates either that carbon demand exceeds con-current supply, or that both source and sink activity are low. A steady, very high NSC concentration is likely to indicate that photosynthesis fully meets, or even exeeds, that needed for growth (surplus assimilates accumulate). 3The analysis presented here considers data for mature trees in four climatic zones: the high elevation treeline (in Mexico, the Alps and Northern Sweden), a temperate lowland forest of central Europe, Mediterranean sclerophyllous woodland and a semideciduous tropical forest in Panama. 4In all four climatic regions, periods of reduced or zero growth show maximum C-loading of trees (source activity exceeding demand), except for dry midsummer in the Mediterranean. NSC pools are generally high throughout the year, and are not significantly affected by mass fruiting episodes. 5It is concluded that, irrespective of the reason for its periodic cessation, growth does not seem to be limited by carbon supply. Instead, in all the cases examined, sink activity and its direct control by the environment or developmental constraints, restricts biomass production of trees under current ambient CO2 concentrations. 6The current carbohydrate charging of mature wild trees from the tropics to the cold limit of tree growth suggests that little (if any) leeway exists for further CO2 -fertilization effects on growth. [source]

    Carbon stock assessment and soil carbon management in agricultural land-uses in Thailand

    N. Gnanavelrajah
    Abstract The organic carbon pool in agricultural land-uses is capable of enhancing agricultural sustainability and serving as a potential sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A study was carried out to estimate and map carbon stock of different agricultural land-uses in a sub-watershed of Thailand and to assess the land-use sustainability with respect to carbon management. A quadrat sampling methodology was adopted to estimate the biomass and its carbon content of 11 different land-uses in the study area. Existing soil data were used to calculate the soil carbon. GIS was used for integrating biomass carbon, soil carbon and carbon stock mapping. Roth carbon model was used to project the soil carbon of present land-uses in the coming 10 years and based on which the sustainability of land-uses was predicted. The total carbon stock of agricultural land-uses was estimated to be 20·5,Tg, of which 41·49 per cent was biomass carbon and 58·51 per cent was soil carbon. Among the land-uses, para rubber had the highest average biomass C (136·34,Mg,C,ha,1) while paddy had the lowest (7·08,Mg,C,ha,1). About four-fifths of agricultural land-uses in the watershed are sustainable in maintaining the desired level of soil carbon in coming 10 years while one-fifths are unstable. Such information on carbon stock could be valuable to develop viable land-use options for agricultural sustainability and carbon sequestration. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Two mire species respond differently to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation: effects on biomass allocation and root exudation

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 4 2006
    Riikka Rinnan
    Summary ,,Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation arising from stratospheric ozone depletion may influence soil microbial communities via effects on plant carbon allocation and root exudation. ,,Eriophorum angustifolium and Narthecium ossifragum plants, grown in peatland mesocosms consisting of Sphagnum peat, peat pore water and natural microbial communities, were exposed outdoors to enhanced UV-B radiation simulating 15% ozone depletion in southern Scandinavia for 8 wk. ,,Enhanced UV-B increased rhizome biomass and tended to decrease the biomass of the largest root fraction of N. ossifragum and furthermore decreased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and monocarboxylic acid concentration, which serves as an estimate of net root exudation, in the pore water of the N. ossifragum mesocosms. Monocarboxylic acid concentration was negatively related to the total carbon concentration of N. ossifragum leaves, which was increased by enhanced UV-B. By contrast, enhanced UV-B tended to increase monocarboxylic acid concentration in the rhizosphere of E. angustifolium and its root : shoot ratio. Microbial biomass carbon was increased by enhanced UV-B in the surface water of the E. angustifolium mesocosms. ,,Increased UV-B radiation appears to alter below-ground biomass of the mire plants in species-specific patterns, which in turn leads to a change in the net efflux of root exudates. [source]

    Residues of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in Chinese paddy soils,

    Haizhen Wang
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Metsulfuron-methyl is widely used for controlling many annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in cereal crops. Nonetheless, increasing evidence has demonstrated that even extremely low levels of metsulfuron-methyl residues in soil can be toxic to subsequent crops or non-target organisms. The behavior of herbicides in soils is mostly related to their residual forms. The intent of the present study was to investigate the dynamics of extractable residues (ERs) and non-extractable residues (NERs) of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in twelve Chinese paddy soils and their relationships to soil properties. RESULTS: ERs decreased gradually after application, whereas NERs increased rapidly during the initial 28 days, and gradually decreased thereafter. ERs and NERs were respectively 10.1,67.9% and 5.6,28.7% of applied radioactivity in soils at 224 days after application. ERs correlated positively with soil pH and silt fractions, and negatively with microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and clay fractions, but the opposite was observed for NERs. CONCLUSION: Both ERs and NERs may be present in the soil at the time of planting following rice crops, and the risk of phytotoxic effects needs to be considered. Soil pH, MBC and clay/silt fractions were the main factors in affecting the amounts of both ERs and NERs of metsulfuron-methyl in the tested soils. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]