Biomass Accumulation (biomass + accumulation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Lack of Interaction between Extreme High-Temperature Events at Vegetative and Reproductive Growth Stages in Wheat

B. Wollenweber
Abstract Increased climatic variability and more frequent episodes of extreme conditions may result in crops being exposed to more than one extreme temperature event in a single growing season and could decrease crop yields to the same extent as changes in mean temperature. The developmental stage of the crop exposed to increased temperatures will determine the severity of possible damage experienced by the plant. It is not known whether or not the damaging effects of heat episodes occurring at different phenological stages are additive. In the present study, the interaction of high-temperature events applied at the stages of double ridges and anthesis in Triticum aestivum (L.) cv. Chablis was investigated. Biomass accumulation of control plants and that of plants experiencing high temperatures during the double-ridge stage were similar and were reduced by 40 % when plants were subjected to a heat event at anthesis. Grain number on the main and side tillers declined by 41 %, and individual grain weight declined by 45 % with heat stress applied at the double-ridge stage and anthesis or at anthesis alone. The harvest index was reduced from 0.53 to 0.33. Nitrogen contents in leaves were reduced by 10 % at the double-ridge stage and by 25 % at anthesis. The maximum rates of CO2 assimilation increased with heat stress at the double-ridge stage and higher rates were maintained throughout the growing season. The results clearly indicate that an extreme heat event at the double-ridge stage does not affect subsequent growth or the response of wheat to heat stress at anthesis. [source]

Biomass accumulation and clogging in trickle-bed bioreactors

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 10 2004
Ion Iliuta
Abstract Excessive biomass formation in two-phase flow trickle-bed bioreactors induces clogging and leads to the progressive obstruction of the bed that is accompanied with a buildup in pressure drop and flow channeling. Currently, physical models linking the two-phase flow to the space-time evolution of biological clogging are virtually nonexistent. An attempt has been made with this contribution to fill in this gap by developing a unidirectional dynamic multiphase flow model based on the volume-average mass, momentum, and species balance equations. Phenol biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida as the predominant species immobilized on activated carbon was chosen as a case study to illustrate the consequences of formation of excessive amounts of biomass. Furthermore, in developing the transient model, the following basic processes were assumed to occur and have been accounted for in the mathematical model: oxygen transport from gas into liquid bulks, phenol, and oxygen transport from the liquid phase to the biofilm surface, simultaneous diffusion and reaction of phenol and oxygen within biofilm, as well as their simultaneous diffusion and adsorption within the porous supporting particles. © 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 50: 2541,2551, 2004 [source]

Tolerance of Pinus taeda and Pinus serotina to low salinity and flooding: Implications for equilibrium vegetation dynamics

Benjamin Poulter
Abstract Questions: 1. Do pine seedlings in estuarine environments display discrete or continuous ranges of physiological tolerance to flooding and salinity? 2. What is the tolerance of Pinus taeda and P. serotina to low salinity and varying hydrologic conditions? 3. Are the assumptions for ecological equilibrium met for modeling plant community migration in response to sea-level rise? Location: Albemarle Peninsula, North Carolina, USA. Methods: In situ observations were made to quantify natural pine regeneration and grass cover along a salinity stress gradient (from marsh, dying or dead forest, to healthy forest). A full-factorial greenhouse experiment was set up to investigate mortality and carbon allocation of Pinus taeda and P. serotina to low-salinity conditions and two hydrology treatments over 6 months. Treatments consisted of freshwater and two salinity levels (4 ppt and 8 ppt) under either permanently flooded or periodically flushed hydrologic conditions. Results: Natural pine regeneration was common (5,12 seedlings per m2) in moderate to well-drained soils where salinity concentrations were below ca. 3.5 ppt. Pine regeneration was generally absent in flooded soils, and cumulative mortality was 100% for 4 and 8 ppt salinity levels under flooded conditions in the greenhouse study. Under weekly flushing conditions, mortality was not significantly different between 0 and 4 ppt, confirming field observations. Biomass accumulation was higher for P. taeda, but for both pine species, the root to shoot ratio was suppressed under the 8 ppt drained treatment, reflecting increased below-ground stress. Conclusions: While Pinus taeda and P. serotina are commonly found in estuarine ecosystems, these species display a range of physiological tolerance to low-salinity conditions. Our results suggest that the rate of forest migration may lag relative to gradual sea-level rise and concomitant alterations in hydrology and salinity. Current bioclimate or landscape simulation models assume discrete thresholds in the range of plant tolerance to stress, especially in coastal environments, and consequently, they may overestimate the rate, extent, and timing of plant community response to sea-level rise. [source]

Physiological responses of Matricaria chamomilla to cadmium and copper excess

Jozef Ková
Abstract Physiological responses of Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) excess (3, 60, and 120 ,M for 7 days) with special emphasis on phenolic metabolism were studied. Cu at 120 ,M reduced chamomile growth, especially in the roots where it was more abundant than Cd. Notwithstanding the low leaf Cu amount (37.5 ,g g,1 DW) in comparison with Cd (237.8 ,g g,1 DW) at 120 ,M, it caused reduction of biomass accumulation, Fv/Fm ratio and soluble proteins. In combination with high accumulation of phenolics, strong reduction of proteins and high GPX activity in the roots, this supports severe redox Cu properties. In terms of leaf phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, it seems that Cd had a stimulatory effect during the course of the experiment, whereas Cu was found to stimulate it after 7-day exposure. The opposite trend was visible in the roots, where Cd had a stimulatory effect at high doses but Cu mainly at the highest dose. This supports the assumption of different PAL time dynamics under Cd and Cu excess. A dose of 60 and 120 ,M Cu led to 2- and 3-times higher root lignin accumulation while the same Cd doses increased it by 33 and 68%, respectively. A Cu dose of 120 ,M can be considered as limiting for chamomile growth under conditions of present research, while resistance to high Cd doses was confirmed. However, PAL and phenolics seemed to play an important role in detoxification of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2008. [source]

Ecological responses to nutrients in streams and rivers of the Colorado mountains and foothills

Summary 1. Abundance and composition of periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates were treated as potential nutrient response variables for 74 streams in montane Colorado. The streams ranged from unenriched to mildly enriched with nutrients (N, P). 2. The study showed no meaningful relationship between periphyton biomass accumulation and concentrations of total or dissolved forms of nitrogen or phosphorus. Nutrient concentrations were also unrelated to periphyton and macroinvertebrate richness, diversity and community composition. Macroinvertebrate communities did, however, show a strong positive relationship to periphyton abundance. 3. A positive response of periphyton biomass to increasing nutrient concentrations has been well documented over large ranges of nutrient concentrations. Our study suggests that the nutrient response is suppressed by other controlling factors on the lower limb of the nutrient response curve (i.e. at low nutrient concentrations); a quantitatively significant response occurs only in excess of a threshold beyond which nutrients become dominant over other controlling factors. This interpretation of the results is consistent with published meta-analyses showing lack of nutrient response for a high proportion of experimentally enriched periphyton communities, and division of responses between N and P for communities that do show growth in response to enrichment. 4. Grazing probably is not the key controlling variable for periphyton in Colorado mountain streams, given that the highest chlorophyll concentrations are associated with the highest abundances of macroinvertebrates. Modelling indicates that the initial amount of periphyton biomass at the start of the growing season, in conjunction with elevation-related length of the growing season and water temperature, explains most of the variation in periphyton accumulation among these streams, but there is a yet unexplained suppression of periphyton growth rates across all elevations. [source]

Image analysis of Daphnia populations: non-destructive determination of demography and biomass in cultures

Per J. Færøvig
SUMMARY 1. An image analysis technique was developed for the semiautomatic determination of abundance, size distribution and biomass in Daphnia cultures. This allowed detailed observations of growth, demography and biomass accumulation in live populations, avoiding artifacts caused by subsampling and sampling losses. 2. The image analysis method gave fast, non-destructive and reliable individual counts, even in cultures with high density and a large fraction of juveniles. 3. In Daphnia, animal width changes with nutritional status and growth within instar, while length changes only at the moult. Thus, estimation of individual biomass using an ellipsoidal model based on animal width gave improved biomass calculations compared to manual counting, sizing, and length : weight regressions. 4. The power of the image analysis technique for assessing population growth and size structure was demonstrated in two 40-day experiments, with Daphnia magna feeding on the green algae Selenastrum capricornutum in a two-stage chemostat system. [source]

Hydraulic differentiation of Ponderosa pine populations along a climate gradient is not associated with ecotypic divergence

H. Maherali
Summary 1.,Pinus ponderosa occurs in a range of contrasting environments in the western USA. Xeric populations typically have lower leaf : sapwood area ratio (AL/AS) and higher whole-tree leaf specific hydraulic conductance (KL) than mesic populations. These climate-driven shifts in hydraulic architecture are considered adaptive because they maintain minimum leaf water potential above levels that cause xylem cavitation. 2.,Using a common garden study, we examined whether differences in biomass allocation and hydraulic architecture between P. ponderosa populations originating from isolated outcrops in the Great Basin desert and Sierran montane environments were caused by ecotypic differentiation or phenotypic plasticity. To determine if populations were genetically differentiated and if phenotypic and genetic differentiation coincided, we also characterized the genetic structure of these populations using DNA microsatellites. 3.,Phenotypic differentiation in growth, biomass allocation and hydraulic architecture was variable among populations in the common garden. There were no systematic differences between desert and montane climate groups that were consistent with adaptive expectations. Drought had no effect on the root : shoot and needle : stem ratio, but reduced seedling biomass accumulation, leaf area ratio, AL/AS and KL. Stem hydraulic conductance (KH) was strongly size-dependent, and was lower in droughted plants, primarily because of lower growth. 4.,Although microsatellites were able to detect significant non-zero (P < 0·001) levels of differentiation between populations, these differences were small and were not correlated with geographic separation or climate group. Estimates of genetic differentiation among populations were low (<5%), and almost all the genetic variation (>95%) resided within populations, suggesting that gene flow was the dominant factor shaping genetic structure. 5.,These results indicate that biomass allocation and hydraulic differences between desert and montane populations are not the result of ecotypic differentiation. Significant drought effects on leaf : sapwood allocation and KL suggest that phenotypic differentiation between desert and montane climates could be the result of phenotypic plasticity. [source]

Model predicting dynamics of biomass, structure and digestibility of herbage in managed permanent pastures.


Abstract A mechanistic model, simulating the dynamics of production, structure and digestibility of managed permanent pastures, was developed. Its evaluation consisted of (i) studying model response to a range of grassland communities, cutting frequencies and site characteristics, and (ii) testing the model against experimental data, focusing on biomass accumulation and digestibility during three different cutting cycles, herbage production under a frequent cutting regime, and sward dynamics during the winter. The model realistically predicted the dynamics of biomass, structure and digestibility of herbage for various communities of permanent pastures, in different sites and under different management conditions for upland areas of the Auvergne region in France. The predicted responses to environmental conditions and cutting regimes were close to field observations and experimental results. Although the model successfully predicted the dynamics of average herbage production, it lacked precision in predicting the low biomass production observed in relation to the weather conditions found in a few specific years. The model was able to predict the dynamics of the sward during winter and is, therefore, fit for producing multiple-year simulations. To improve the prediction of variability of biomass production and to predict the medium- to long-term dynamics of permanent pastures, the model could be refined by adding seasonal and multiple-year variation in nitrogen availability and in the proportion of grass functional groups in the grassland community. [source]

Evaluation of Usefulness of Daily Mean Temperature Studies on Impact of Climate Change

S. Chauhan
Abstract The impact of global warming on rise in temperature in different regions has often been expressed as a change in mean temperature (Tmean). The recent results suggest that this change could be both in diurnal and interannual temperatures. Therefore it is important to assess the impact of diurnal variation with the same mean temperature on crop plants for understanding the impact of climate change on agriculture, and also assess the possibility of genetic variation in adaptation. The present study in wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties examines the effect of varying Tmax and Tmin, while maintaining the same mean temperature on phenology, growth and productivity. The mean temperatures examined are 18 °C with Tmax/Tmin combination of 18/18, 20/16, 22/14 and 24/12 °C. These wheat varieties differed considerably in their response to varying Tmax and Tmin with respect to days to ear emergence, anthesis, biomass accumulation and grain yield. The wheat variety HD2329, a popular Mexican dwarf high yielding cultivar showed maximum adaptation in the temperature combinations examined. The results suggest the need to refine the crop ideotypes in the context of the changing global scenario. This may require detailed experimental studies on various phenological phases. Such studies would help in assessing genotypes which may be having adaptation and thus identify the potential donors for further improvement of crops. [source]

Optimization of C:N ratio and minimal initial carbon source for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Bacillus megaterium

Débora Jung Luvizetto Faccin
Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of this research was the optimization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate),P(3HB),production in submerged cultures of Bacillus megaterium in a mineral medium using sucrose as carbon source and nitrogen as the limiting substrate. Small-scale experiments were carried out in shake flasks at 30 °C and 160 rpm in order to evaluate the best initial sucrose concentration and carbon:nitrogen ratio to maximize biomass accumulation and biopolymer production. An objective function in terms of residual sucrose and P(3HB) production was proposed in order to optimize the amount of carbon source used and the production of P(3HB). RESULTS: High production of P(3HB) was obtained, with approximately 70% (CDW) accumulation in cells without nitrogen limitation and strongly correlated with the pH of the culture. Scaling-up the system to cultures in a bioreactor, with or without pH control, a reduction of P(3HB) accumulation (around 30% CDW) was observed when compared with shaker cultures, suggesting a possible role of oxygen limitation as a stress signaling for P(3HB) synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Results of our experiments showed that Bacillus megaterium was able to produce P(3HB) at one of the highest production rates so far reported for this bacterium, making this microorganism very interesting for industrial applications. Comparisons of shaker and bench-scale bioreactor experiments show both the importance of pH and aeration strategies. It is likely that complex aeration strategies linked to cell metabolism will be necessary for further developments using this bacterium. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Enrichment planting does not improve tree restoration when compared with natural regeneration in a former pine plantation in Kibale National Park, Uganda

Patrick A. Omeja
Abstract Given the high rates of deforestation and subsequent land abandonment, there are increasing calls to reforest degraded lands; however, many areas are in a state of arrested succession. Plantations can break arrested succession and the sale of timber can pay for restoration efforts. However, if the harvest damages native regeneration, it may be necessary to intervene with enrichment planting. Unfortunately, it is not clear when intervention is necessary. Here, we document the rate of biomass accumulation of planted seedlings relative to natural regeneration in a harvested plantation in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We established two 2-ha plots and in one, we planted 100 seedlings of each of four native species, and we monitored all tree regeneration in this area and the control plot. After 4 years, naturally regenerating trees were much taller, larger and more common than the planted seedlings. Species richness and two nonparametric estimators of richness were comparable between the plots. The cumulative biomass of planted seedlings accounted for 0.04% of the total above-ground tree biomass. The use of plantations facilitated the growth of indigenous trees, and enrichment planting subsequent to harvesting was not necessary to obtain a rich tree community with a large number of new recruits. Résumé Étant donné le rythme élevé de déforestation et, par la suite, d'abandon de terres, il y a des demandes croissantes pour repeupler les terrains dégradés; cependant, de nombreuses surfaces se trouvent dans un état de succession interrompu. Des plantations peuvent mettre fin à cette succession stoppée, et la vente de grumes peut financer les efforts de reforestation. Pourtant, si les prélèvements d'arbres endommagent la régénération naturelle, il peut être nécessaire d'intervenir avec des plantations d'appoint. Malheureusement, il n'est pas toujours facile de savoir quand une intervention est nécessaire. Nous documentons ici le taux d'accumulation de biomasse dans des jeunes arbres replantés par rapport à la régénération naturelle dans une plantation exploitée, à l'intérieur du Parc National de Kibale, en Ouganda. Nous avons établi deux parcelles de deux hectares et, dans une, nous avons repiqué 100 plants de chacune des quatre espèces natives. Nous avons ensuite suivi la régénération de tous les arbres dans cette parcelle et dans la parcelle témoin. Après quatre ans, les arbres provenant de la régénération naturelle étaient beaucoup plus grands, plus gros et plus abondants que les arbres replantés. La richesse en espèces et deux estimateurs nonparamétriques de la richesse étaient comparables dans les deux parcelles. La biomasse cumulée des jeunes arbres plantés comptait pour 0,04% de la biomasse aérienne totale des arbres. Le recours à des plantations a facilité la croissance d'arbres indigènes et la plantation d'appoint faisant suite à l'exploitation ne fut pas nécessaire pour obtenir une communauté d'arbres riche, avec un grand nombre de nouvelles recrues. [source]

Clonal variation in morphological and physiological responses to irradiance and photoperiod for the aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus

Jörn Pilon
Summary 1Widely distributed plants are exposed to contrasting gradients in irradiance and photoperiod across latitude. We investigated the relative contribution of local specialization and phenotypic plasticity to variation in plant growth for three clones of the aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus L., originating from 42.5 to 68° N. Plants were grown at a factorial combination of two irradiances (50 and 350 µmol m,2 s,1) and three photoperiods (13, 16 and 22 h) and morphology, gas-exchange rate and biomass accumulation were recorded. 2The overall response to variation in irradiance and photoperiod was similar for all three clones. 3Differences in irradiance resulted in strong acclimative changes in morphological and physiological characteristics. At low irradiance, pronounced vertical shoot extension compensated for the limited plasticity in leaf area production, while photosynthetic capacity, apparent quantum yield and total chlorophyll concentration increased. As a result, biomass yield at the end of the experimental period was similar in both treatments. 4A decrease in photoperiod also resulted in plastic changes in morphology (increase of leaf biomass per unit plant biomass) and physiology (increase of photosynthetic capacity). However, these acclimative responses did not fully compensate for differences in photoperiod, since biomass was significantly lower under 13 and 16 h photoperiods than at 22 h. 5P. pectinatus is therefore phenotypically plastic, rather than locally specialized to differences in irradiance and photoperiod. [source]

Effects of Elevated CO2 on Growth, Carbon Assimilation, Photosynthate Accumulation and Related Enzymes in Rice Leaves during Sink-Source Transition

Jun-Ying Li
Abstract To study the effects of growing rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under the treatment of the short-term elevated CO2 during the period of sink-source transition, several physiological processes such as dynamic changes in photosynthesis, photosynthate accumulation, enzyme activities (sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and sucrose synthase (SS)), and their specific gene (sps1 and RSus1) expressions in both mature and developing leaf were measured. Rice seedlings with fully expanded sixth leaf (marked as the source leaf, L6) were kept in elevated (700 ,mol/mol) and ambient (350 mol/L) CO2 until the 7th leaf (marked as the sink leaf, L7) fully expanded. The results demonstrated that elevated CO2 significantly increased the rate of leaf elongation and biomass accumulation of L7 during the treatment without affecting the growth of L6. However, in both developing and mature leaves, net photosynthetic assimilation rate (A), all kinds of photosynthate contents such as starch, sucrose and hexose, activities of SPS and SS and transcript levels of sps1 and RSus1 were significantly increased under elevated CO2 condition. Results suggested that the elevated CO2 had facilitated photosynthate assimilation, and increased photosynthate supplies from the source leaf to the sink leaf, which accelerated the growth and sink-source transition in new developing sink leaves. The mechanisms of SPS regulation by the elevated CO2 was also discussed. [source]


Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
Agan, J. C. & Lehman, R. L. Department of Physical and Life Sciences, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi 6300 Ocean Dr., Corpus Christi, TX 78412 USA Benthic algal sampling from high and low energy zones at a selected site on the south jetty at Port Aransas, Texas was completed between April 1999 and February 2000. Species composition and seasonal periodicity in relation to temperature and salinity fluctuations were determined. Dominant plants throughout the year included Bryocladia cuspidata, Bryocladia thyrsigera, Gelidium pusillum, Centroceras clavulatum, Ulva fasciata, and Padina gymnospora. The Rhodophyta dominated species coverage, along with biomass accumulation, although Chlorophyta species accrued the greatest biomass on the high energy side in April and June sampling. Chlorophyta are important to benthic coverage and biomass in the shallowest of waters, despite being fewer in species richness. Phaeophyta species including Petalonia fascia, Hincksia mitchelliae, and Ectocarpus siliculosus were found only during the cooler months. Padina gymnospora was the one exception as it was collected year-round. Results indicate that a greater Rhodophyta abundance was found on the channel side (low energy), where as, the surf side (high energy) contained a greater Chlorophyta abundance. Phaeophyta abundance for both high and low energy sites were comparable possibly due to the greater depth of water in which they are located. Little variance occurred in average biomass accumulation throughout the year. Highest biomass was in August (216.613g dry weight) with lowest occurring in April (107.4205g dry weight). [source]


Article first published online: 9 OCT 200
Agan, J. C. & Lehman, R. L. Department of Physical and Life Sciences, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi 6300 Ocean Dr., Corpus Christi, TX 78412 USA Benthic algal sampling from high and low energy zones at a selected site on the south jetty at Port Aransas, Texas was completed between April 1999 and February 2000. Species composition and seasonal periodicity in relation to temperature and salinity fluctuations were determined. Dominant plants throughout the year included Bryocladia cuspidata, Bryocladia thyrsigera, Gelidium pusillum, Centroceras clavulatum, Ulva fasciata, and Padina gymnospora. The Rhodophyta dominated species coverage, along with biomass accumulation, although Chlorophyta species accrued the greatest biomass on the high energy side in April and June sampling. Chlorophyta are important to benthic coverage and biomass in the shallowest of waters, despite being fewer in species richness. Phaeophyta species including Petalonia fascia, Hincksia mitchelliae, and Ectocarpus siliculosus were found only during the cooler months. Padina gymnospora was the one exception as it was collected year-round. Results indicate that a greater Rhodophyta abundance was found on the channel side (low energy), where as, the surf side (high energy) contained a greater Chlorophyta abundance. Phaeophyta abundance for both high and low energy sites were comparable possibly due to the greater depth of water in which they are located. Little variance occurred in average biomass accumulation throughout the year. Highest biomass was in August (216.613g dry weight) with lowest occurring in April (107.4205g dry weight). [source]


Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
Millie, D. F.1, Fahnenstiel, G. L.2, Carrick, H. J.3, Lohrenz, S. E.4, & Schofield, O. M. E.5 1USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA, 2NOAA-Lake Michigan Field Station, Muskegon, MI 49441, USA, 3Institute of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA, 4Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14060, USA; 5Isttitute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, 71 Dudley Road New Brunswick NJ 08901 USA, Sediment resuspension is an annually recurrent feature during spring holomixis in southern Lake Michigan. Relationships between resuspension events and phyt-oplankton biomass, compositional dynamics, and pro-duction were evaluated during 1998 and 1999. Increased water-column light attenuation (KPAR) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations corresponded with resuspension events within nearshore regions. However, neither KPAR nor SPM corresponded with chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations, indicating no impact of resuspension on instantaneous biomass accumulation. Diatoms and cryptophytes dominated phytoplankton assemblages and together typically comprised greater than 85% of the Chl a. The associations of SPM/KPAR with diatom Chl a, and the inverse relationship between relative diatom and crypto-phyte Chl a corresponded with the dominance of diatoms and cryptophytes in near- and offshore waters, respectively. Moreover, a spatial variation in species composition occurred during resuspension events; small, centric diatoms exhibiting meroplanktonic life histories and large, pennate diatoms considered benthic in origin were associated with sediment resuspension whereas large, net diatoms and cryptophytes typically comprising phytoplankton of the annual spring bloom and of optically-clear, offshore waters were not. The presence of viable diatom photopigments and the abundance of small centric diatoms within the surficial sediments, established this layer as the source of meroplankton. Integral production was dramatically reduced within sediment-impacted waters; however, nearshore assemblages appeared to have greater photosynthetic capacities than offshore assemblages. Although resuspension dramatically influenced near-shore phytoplankton assemblages, it appeared to have little, if any relationship with the compositional development of the annual spring bloom. [source]

Effects of prolonged restriction in water supply on photosynthesis, shoot development and storage root yield in sweet potato

Philippus Daniel Riekert Van Heerden
Besides the paucity of information on the effects of drought stress on photosynthesis and yield in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], available reports are also contradictory. The aim of this study was to shed light on the effects of long-term restricted water supply on shoot development, photosynthesis and storage root yield in field-grown sweet potato. Experiments were conducted under a rainout shelter where effects of restricted water supply were assessed in two varieties (Resisto and A15). Large decreases in stomatal conductance occurred in both varieties after 5 weeks of treatment. However, continued measurements revealed a large varietal difference in persistence of this response and effects on CO2 assimilation. Although restricted water supply decreased leaf relative water content similarly in both varieties, the negative effects on stomatal conductance disappeared with time in A15 (indicating high drought acclimation capacity) but not in Resisto, thus leading to inhibition of CO2 assimilation in Resisto. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, and the relationship between stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and CO2 assimilation rate, indicated that drought stress inhibited photosynthesis primarily through stomatal closure. Although yield loss was considerably larger in Resisto, it was also reduced by up to 60% in A15, even though photosynthesis, expressed on a leaf area basis, was not inhibited in this variety. In A15 yield loss appears to be closely associated with decreased aboveground biomass accumulation, whereas in Resisto, combined effects on biomass accumulation and photosynthesis per unit leaf area are indicated, suggesting that research aimed at improving drought tolerance in sweet potato should consider both these factors. [source]

Ethylene insensitivity impedes a subset of responses to phosphorus deficiency in tomato and petunia

ABSTRACT The role of ethylene in growth and developmental responses to low phosphorus stress was evaluated using ethylene-insensitive ,Never-ripe' (Nr) tomato and etr1 petunia plants. Low phosphorus increased adventitious root formation in ,Pearson' (wild-type) tomato plants, but not in Nr, supporting a role for ethylene in adventitious root development and showing that ethylene is important for this aspect of phosphorus response. Low phosphorus reduced ethylene production by adventitious roots of both genotypes, suggesting that ethylene perception , not production , regulates carbon allocation to adventitious roots at the expense of other roots under low phosphorus stress. With the exception of its effect on adventitious rooting, Nr had positive effects on growth and biomass accumulation in tomato whereas etr1 tended to have negative effects on petunia. This was particularly evident during the recovery from transplanting, when the effective quantum yield of photosystem II of etr1 petunia grown with low phosphorus was significantly lower than ,Mitchell Diploid', suggesting that etr1 petunia plants may undergo more severe post-transplant stress at low phosphorus availability. Our results demonstrate that ethylene mediates adventitious root formation in response to phosphorus stress and plays an important role for quick recovery of plants exposed to multiple environmental stresses, i.e. transplanting and low phosphorus. [source]

The influence of ultraviolet radiation on growth, photosynthesis and phenolic levels of green and red lettuce: potential for exploiting effects of ultraviolet radiation in a production system

E. Tsormpatsidis
Studies have shown that natural ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases secondary products such as phenolics but can significantly inhibit biomass accumulation in lettuce plants. In the work presented here, the effect of UV radiation on phenolic concentration and biomass accumulation was assessed in relation to photosynthetic performance in red and green lettuce types. Lettuce plants in polythene clad tunnels were exposed to either ambient (UV transparent film) or UV-free conditions (UV blocking film). The study tested whether growth reduction in lettuce plants exposed to natural UV radiation is because of inhibition of photosynthesis by direct damage to the photosynthetic apparatus or by internal shading by anthocyanins. Ambient levels of UV radiation did not limit the efficiency of photosynthesis suggesting that phenolic compounds may effectively protect the photosynthetic apparatus. Growth inhibition does, however, occur in red lettuce and could be explained by the high metabolic cost of phenolic compounds for UV protection. From a commercial perspective, UV transparent and UV blocking films offer opportunities because, in combination, they could increase plant quality as well as productivity. Growing plants continuously under a UV blocking film, and then 6 days before the final harvest transferring them to a UV transparent film, showed that high yields and high phytochemical content can be achieved complementarily. [source]

Atmospheric nitric oxide stimulates plant growth and improves the quality of spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

C.W. Jin
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous signalling molecule implicated in a growing number of plant processes and has been recognised as a plant hormone. The present research employed spinach plant (Spinacia oleracea cv. Huangjia) and closed growth chambers to investigate the effects of gaseous NO application on vegetable production in greenhouses. Treatment of low concentration of NO gas (ambient atmosphere with 200 nL L,1 NO gas) significantly increased the shoot biomass of the soil-cultivated plants as compared with the control treatment (ambient atmosphere). In addition, the NO treatment also increased the photosynthetic rate of leaves, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthesis is an important reason leading to more biomass accumulation induced by NO gas. Furthermore, the NO treatment decreased nitrate concentration but increased the concentrations of soluble sugar, protein, antioxidants (vitamin C, glutathione and flavonoids), and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) in shoots of the plants grown in soil, suggesting that the gaseous NO treatment can not only increase vegetable production but also improve vegetable quality. In addition, the effects of the combined application of NO and CO2 (NO 200 nL L,1 and CO2 800 ,L L,1) on shoot biomass was even greater than the effects of elevated CO2 (CO2 800 ,L L,1) or the NO treatment alone, implying that gaseous NO treatment can be used in CO2 -elevated greenhouses as an effective strategy in improving vegetable production. [source]

Acceleration of germination and early growth of wheat and bean seedlings grown under various magnetic field and osmotic conditions

Turgay Cakmak
Abstract Magnetic field (MF) can have different effects on plant metabolism depending on its application style, intensity, and environmental conditions. This study reports the effects of different intensities of static MF (4 or 7,mT) on seed germination and seedling growth of bean or wheat seeds in different media having 0, 2, 6, and 10 atmosphere (atm) osmotic pressure prepared with sucrose or salt. The germination percentages of the treated seeds were compared with untreated seeds germinated in different osmotic pressure during 7 days of incubation. The application of both MFs promoted the germination ratios of bean and wheat seeds, regardless of increasing osmotic pressure of sucrose or salt. Growth data measured on the 7th day showed that the treated plants grew faster than control. After 7 days of incubation, the mean length of treated seedlings was statistically higher than control plants in all the media. The greatest germination and growth rates in both plants were from the test groups exposed to 7,mT MF. Strikingly, effects of static MF on germination and growth increased positively with increasing osmotic pressure or salt stress compared to their respective controls. On the other hand, MF application caused an increase in dry biomass accumulation of root and shoots of both seedlings; however, this effect was found statistically important in all the conditions for wheat but not for bean, in general. Bioelectromagnetics 31:120,129, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Heterologous Expression of Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin (VHb) and Cultivation Conditions Affect the Alkaloid Profile of Hyoscyamus muticus Hairy Roots

Annika Wilhelmson
Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Hyoscyamus muticus induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offer a potential production system for tropane alkaloids. Oxygen deficiency has been shown to limit growth and biomass accumulation of hairy roots, whereas little experimental data is available on the effect of oxygen on alkaloid production. We have investigated the effect of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) expression and cultivation conditions on the complete alkaloid profile of H. muticus hairy roots in shake flasks and in a laboratory scale bioreactor. We optimized the growth medium composition and studied the effects of sucrose, ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate on growth and alkaloid production. Maximum biomass accumulation was achieved with the highest and maximum hyoscyamine content with the lowest sucrose concentration. The optimum nitrate concentration for growth was higher for the VHb line than the control. Neither VHb expression nor aeration improved the hyoscyamine content significantly, thus suggesting that hyoscyamine biosynthesis is not limited by oxygen availability. Interestingly, the effect of VHb expression on the alkaloid profile was slightly different from that of aeration. VHb expression did not affect the concentrations of cuscohygrine, which was increased by aeration. Therefore, the effect of VHb is probably not related only to its ability to increase the intracellular effective oxygen concentration. [source]

Intrinsic Oxygen Use Kinetics of Transformed Plant Root Culture

Patrick T. Asplund
Root meristem oxygen uptake, root tip extension rate, and specific growth rate are assessed as a function of dissolved oxygen level for three transformed root cultures. The influence of hydrodynamic boundary layer was considered for all measurements to permit correlation of oxygen-dependent kinetics with the concentration of oxygen at the surface of the root meristem. Oxygen uptake rate is shown to be saturated at ambient conditions, and a saturation level of approximately 300 ,mole O2/(cm3 tissue·hr) was observed for all three of these morphologically diverse root types. In nearly all cases, the observation of a minimum oxygen pressure, below which respiration, extension, or root growth would not occur, could be accounted for as a boundary layer mass transfer resistance. The critical oxygen pressure below which respiration declines is below saturated ambient oxygen conditions. In contrast, critical oxygen pressures for root tip extension were much higher; extension was nearly linear for the two thicker root types (Hyoscyamus muticus, henbain; Solanum tuberosum, potato) above ambient oxygen levels. The performance of the thinnest root, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) was consistent with reduced internal limitations for oxygen transport. Extension rates did not correlate with biomass accumulation. The fastest growing henbain culture (, = 0.44 day,1) displayed the slowest extension rate (0.16 mm/hr), and the slowest growing mustard culture (, = 0.22 day,1) had the fastest tip extension rate (0.3 mm/hr). This apparent paradox is explained in terms of root branching patterns, where the root branching ratio is shown to be dependent upon the oxygen-limited mersitem extension rate. The implications of these observations on the performance of root culture in bioreactors is discussed. [source]

Rapid Recovery of Biomass, Species Richness, and Species Composition in a Forest Chronosequence in Northeastern Costa Rica

BIOTROPICA, Issue 5 2009
Susan G. Letcher
ABSTRACT Secondary forests are a vital part of the tropical landscape, and their worldwide extent and importance continues to increase. Here, we present the largest chronosequence data set on forest succession in the wet tropics that includes both secondary and old-growth sites. We performed 0.1 ha vegetation inventories in 30 sites in northeastern Costa Rica, including seven old-growth forests and 23 secondary forests on former pastures, ranging from 10 to 42 yr. The secondary forest sites were formerly pasture for intervals of <1,25 yr. Aboveground biomass in secondary forests recovered rapidly, with sites already exhibiting values comparable to old growth after 21,30 yr, and biomass accumulation was not impacted by the length of time that a site was in pasture. Species richness reached old-growth levels in as little as 30 yr, although sites that were in pasture for > 10 yr had significantly lower species richness. Forest cover near the sites at the time of forest establishment did not significantly impact biomass or species richness, and the species composition of older secondary forest sites (>30 yr) converged with that of old growth. These results emphasize the resilience of tropical ecosystems in this region and the high conservation value of secondary forests. [source]

Rosette Recruitment of a Rare Endemic Forb (Gaura neomexicana Subsp. coloradensis) with Canopy Removal of Associated Species

Linda M. Munk
Abstract Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis Munz (Onagraceae), (Colorado butterfly plant), a short-lived perennial forb, became listed as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in October 2000 because of its small global range and population size. This endemic subspecies consists of only 18 extant populations within southeastern Wyoming, southwestern Nebraska, and northeastern Colorado. Wyoming occurrences are on private land with the exception of three occurrences on F. E. Warren Air Force Base, near Cheyenne. Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis may be displaced by many competitors, including Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Canada thistle), an invasive, noxious weed. In June 1998, three G. neomexicana subsp. coloradensis populations were examined for rosette establishment in the presence of and after removal of associated species. The four study treatments removed: (1) Cirsium arvense, (2) grass and forb canopy and associated litter, (3) grass and forb canopy, litter, and C. arvense, and (4) no removal of associated plant species (control). Mature G. neomexicana subsp. coloradensis plants were evaluated for height, number of leaves, and capsule production. The mature plant characteristics monitored in 1998 were not good indicators of subsequent G. neomexicana subsp. coloradensis rosette densities in the following spring. Recruitment was assessed by counting new rosettes in the fall 1999. Although both G. neomexicana subsp. coloradensis and the exotic C. arvense have comparable habitat, removal of C. arvense did not increase G. neomexicana subsp. coloradensis vegetative growth, seed capsule production, or rosette density. Removal of other forbs, grass, and litter, however, increased G. neomexicana subsp. coloradensis rosette density in the following two years, indicating that canopy removal of associated species can enhance rosette establishment of this rare native. The accumulation of dense vegetative cover and litter associated with the absence of herbivory and fire may contribute to the decline of rare species in rich riparian habitats. Return of herbivory and fire in mesic sites to reduce standing biomass accumulations should be considered in restoring recruitment potential to rare monocarpic species. [source]