Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Biomass

  • above-ground biomass
  • above-ground plant biomass
  • aboveground biomass
  • active biomass
  • algal biomass
  • animal biomass
  • ant biomass
  • artemia biomass
  • arthropod biomass
  • bacterial biomass
  • below-ground biomass
  • belowground biomass
  • benthic algal biomass
  • cell biomass
  • cellulosic biomass
  • community biomass
  • cyanobacterial biomass
  • dead biomass
  • dry biomass
  • final biomass
  • fine root biomass
  • fish biomass
  • foliage biomass
  • forest biomass
  • fungal biomass
  • g biomass
  • grass biomass
  • greater biomass
  • herbaceous biomass
  • high biomass
  • highest biomass
  • increased biomass
  • initial biomass
  • invertebrate biomass
  • large biomass
  • leaf biomass
  • lignocellulosic biomass
  • live biomass
  • low biomass
  • lower biomass
  • macroinvertebrate biomass
  • macrophyte biomass
  • maximum biomass
  • mean biomass
  • microbial biomass
  • own biomass
  • periphyton biomass
  • phytoplankton biomass
  • plant biomass
  • population biomass
  • prey biomass
  • relative biomass
  • root biomass
  • seagrass biomass
  • seedling biomass
  • shoot biomass
  • soil microbial biomass
  • spawning stock biomass
  • standing biomass
  • stock biomass
  • total above-ground biomass
  • total aboveground biomass
  • total biomass
  • total plant biomass
  • vegetation biomass
  • waste biomass
  • wood biomass
  • woody biomass
  • zooplankton biomass

  • Terms modified by Biomass

  • biomass accumulation
  • biomass allocation
  • biomass c
  • biomass carbon
  • biomass component
  • biomass composition
  • biomass concentration
  • biomass conversion
  • biomass data
  • biomass decreased
  • biomass density
  • biomass distribution
  • biomass dynamics
  • biomass energy crop
  • biomass energy production
  • biomass estimate
  • biomass feedstock
  • biomass fuel
  • biomass growth
  • biomass loss
  • biomass n
  • biomass partitioning
  • biomass peak
  • biomass production
  • biomass productivity
  • biomass ratio
  • biomass removal
  • biomass response
  • biomass sample
  • biomass value
  • biomass yield

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Helmut Hillebrand
    Grazer control of periphyton biomass has been addressed in numerous experimental studies in all kinds of aquatic habitats. In this meta-analysis, the results of 865 experiments are quantitatively synthesized in order to address the following questions: (i) Do lotic, lentic, and marine ecosystems differ in their degree of grazer control of periphyton biomass? (ii) Which environmental variables affect the degree of grazer control? (iii) How much does the result of these experiments depend on facets of experimental design? Across all ecosystems, the grazers removed on average 59% of the periphyton biomass, with grazing being significantly stronger for laboratory (65%) than for field (56%) experiments. Neither field nor lab experiments showed a significant difference among lotic, lentic, and coastal habitats. Among different taxonomic consumer groups, crustaceans (amphipods and isopods) and trichopteran larvae removed the highest proportion of periphyton biomass. Grazer effects increased with increasing algal biomass, with decreasing resource availability and with increasing temperature, especially in field experiments. Grazer effects also increased with increasing total grazer biomass in field experiments but showed the opposite trend in lab experiments, indicating a tendency toward overcrowded lab experiments. Other aspects of experimental design, such as cage type, size, and duration of the study, strongly affected the outcome of the experiments, suggesting that much care has to be placed on the choice of experimental design. [source]


    Abstract The economics of fisheries is based heavily on describing fish populations by the surplus production model. Both economists and ecologists have different opinions on whether this approach provides an adequate biological basis for economic analysis. This study takes an age-structured population model and shows how, under equilibrium conditions, it determines the surplus production model. The surplus production model is then used to solve an optimal feedback policy for a generic optimal harvesting problem. Next, it is assumed that the fishery manager applies this feedback policy even though the fish population actually evolves according to the age-structured model. This framework is applied to the widow rockfish, Atlantic menhaden, and Pacific halibut fisheries. Population age-structure contains information on future harvest possibilities. The surplus production model neglects this information and may lead to major deviations between the expected and actual outcomes especially under multiple steady states and nonlinearities. [source]

    Remarkable Amphibian Biomass and Abundance in an Isolated Wetland: Implications for Wetland Conservation

    biodiversidad; declinación de anfibios; recuperación de humedales sequía; uso de suelo Abstract:,Despite the continuing loss of wetland habitats and associated declines in amphibian populations, attempts to translate wetland losses into measurable losses to ecosystems have been lacking. We estimated the potential productivity from the amphibian community that would be compromised by the loss of a single isolated wetland that has been protected from most industrial, agricultural, and urban impacts for the past 54 years. We used a continuous drift fence at Ellenton Bay, a 10-ha freshwater wetland on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina (U.S.A.), to sample all amphibians for 1 year following a prolonged drought. Despite intensive agricultural use of the land surrounding Ellenton Bay prior to 1951, we documented 24 species and remarkably high numbers and biomass of juvenile amphibians (>360,000 individuals; >1,400 kg) produced during one breeding season. Anurans (17 species) were more abundant than salamanders (7 species), comprising 96.4% of individual captures. Most (95.9%) of the amphibian biomass came from 232095 individuals of a single species of anuran (southern leopard frog[Rana sphenocephala]). Our results revealed the resilience of an amphibian community to natural stressors and historical habitat alteration and the potential magnitude of biomass and energy transfer from isolated wetlands to surrounding terrestrial habitat. We attributed the postdrought success of amphibians to a combination of adult longevity (often >5 years), a reduction in predator abundance, and an abundance of larval food resources. Likewise, the increase of forest cover around Ellenton Bay from <20% in 1951 to >60% in 2001 probably contributed to the long-term persistence of amphibians at this site. Our findings provide an optimistic counterpoint to the issue of the global decline of biological diversity by demonstrating that conservation efforts can mitigate historical habitat degradation. Resumen:,A pesar de la pérdida de hábitats de humedales y las declinaciones asociadas de poblaciones de anfibios, se han realizado pocos intentos para traducir las pérdidas de humedales en pérdidas mensurables en los ecosistemas. Estimamos la productividad potencial de la comunidad de anfibios que se afectaría por la pérdida de un humedal aislado que ha estado protegido de los impactos industriales, agrícolas y urbanos durante los últimos 54 años. Utilizamos un cerco de desvío en la Bahía Ellentonn, un humedal dulceacuícola de 10 ha en el Río Savannah, cerca de Aiken, Carolina del Sur (E.U.A.), para muestrear todos los anfibios durante 1 año después de una sequía prolongada. A pesar del intensivo uso agrícola del suelo alrededor de la Bahía Ellenton antes de 1951, documentamos 24 especies y números y biomasa de anfibios juveniles notablemente altos (>360,000 individuos; >1,400 kg) en una temporada reproductiva. Los anuros (17 especies) fueron más abundantes que las salamandras (7 especies), y comprendieron 96.4% de las capturas individuales. La mayor parte (95.9%) de la biomasa provino de 232095 individuos de una sola especie de anuro (Rana sphenocephala). Nuestros resultados revelaron que la resiliencia de la comunidad de anfibios a los estresantes naturales y a la alteración histórica del hábitat y la magnitud potencial de la transferencia de biomasa y energía desde los humedales aislados hacia el hábitat terrestre circundante. Atribuimos el éxito post-sequía de los anfibios a una combinación de longevidad de adultos (a menudo > 5 años), la reducción de la abundancia de depredadores y la abundancia de recursos alimenticios para las larvas. Asimismo, el incremento de la cobertura forestal alrededor de la Bahía Ellerton de < 20% en 1951 a > 60% en 2001 probablemente contribuyó a la persistencia de los anfibios a largo plazo en este sitio. Nuestros hallazgos proporcionan un contrapunto optimista al tema de la declinación global de la diversidad biológica al demostrar que los esfuerzos de conservación pueden mitigar a la degradación histórica del hábitat. [source]

    Below-ground competition between trees and grasses may overwhelm the facilitative effects of hydraulic lift

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 8 2004
    F. Ludwig
    Abstract Under large East African Acacia trees, which were known to show hydraulic lift, we experimentally tested whether tree roots facilitate grass production or compete with grasses for below-ground resources. Prevention of tree,grass interactions through root trenching led to increased soil water content indicating that trees took up more water from the topsoil than they exuded via hydraulic lift. Biomass was higher in trenched plots compared to controls probably because of reduced competition for water. Stable isotope analyses of plant and source water showed that grasses which competed with trees used a greater proportion of deep water compared with grasses in trenched plots. Grasses therefore used hydraulically lifted water provided by trees, or took up deep soil water directly by growing deeper roots when competition with trees occurred. We conclude that any facilitative effect of hydraulic lift for neighbouring species may easily be overwhelmed by water competition in (semi-) arid regions. [source]

    The Contribution of Bioenergy to a New Energy Paradigm

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 3 2005
    Daniel De La Torre Ugarte
    Biomass is a widely available resource that is receiving increased consideration as a renewable substitute for fossil fuels. Developed sustainably and used efficiently, it can induce growth in developing countries, reduce oil demand, and address environmental problems. The potential benefits include: reduction of greenhouse gases, recuperation of soil productivity and degraded land, economic benefits from adding value to agricultural activities and improving access to and quality of energy services. The production of bioenergy involves a range of technologies, including solid combustion, gasification, and fermentation. These technologies produce energy from a diverse set of biological resources - traditional crops, crop residues, energy-dedicated crops, dung, and the organic component of urban waste. The results are bioenergy products that provide multiple energy services: cooking fuel, heat, electricity and transportation fuels. It is this very diversity that holds the potential of a win-win-win for the environment, social and economic development. Bioenergy has to be viewed not as a replacement for oil, but as an element of a portfolio of renewable sources of energy. Coherent and mutually supportive environmental and economic policies may be needed to encourage the emergence of a globally dispersed bioenergy industry that will pursue a path of sustainable development. La biomasse est une resource largement répandue, qui commence à retenir l'attention comme substitut renouvelable aux énergies fossiles. En l'utilisant de façon efficace et durable, on peut accélérer la croissance des pays en voie de développement, réduire la demandepour le pétrole et résoudre certains problèmes d'environnement. Au nombre des bénéfices potentiels il faut mettre : la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre, la reconstitution de la fertilité dessols et des terres dégradées, les avantages économiques liés à l'accroissement de la production agricole et à l'amélioration des services énergétiques, tant en qualité qu'en accessibilité. La production de bioénergie met en oeuvre un large éventail de techniques parmi lesquelles la combustionde produits solides, la gazéification et la fermentation. Elles produisent de l'énergie à partir d'une grande variété de sources biologiques : cultures traditionnelles, résidus de cultures, cultures spécialisées, fumiers et déchets organiques urbains. Les produits bio-énergétiques qui en résultent couvrent une grande variété d'usages : énergie de cuisson, chauffage, électricité et transports. C'est précisément sur cette diversité que repose l'espoir de gains dans toutes les directions, sociales, environnementales et économiques. Il ne faut pas voir la bioénergie comme un simple substitut au pétrole, mais comme un portefeuille de ressources renouvelables. Pour encourager l'émergence d'une industrie bioénergétique largement répandue et susceptible de contribuer au développement durable, il faudra sans doute élaborer des politiques économiques et environnementales cohérentes, capables de se soutenir mutuellement. Bei Biomasse handelt es sich umeine weithin verfügbare Ressource, welche zunehmend als erneuerbarer Ersatz für fossile Brennstoffe in Betracht gezogen wird. Sie kann bei nachhaltiger Entwicklung und effizienter Nutzung zu Wachstum in den Entwicklungsländern führen, die Nachfrage nach Öl senken und dazu beitragen, die Umweltprobleme in den Griff zu bekommen. Zu den potenziellen Nutzen gehÖren: Verringerung der Treibhausgase, Wiederherstellung von Bodenproduktivität sowie von erodiertem Land, wirtschaftlicher Nutzen durch zusätzliche Wertschöpfung aus landwirtschaftlicher Aktivität und besserer Zugang zu und Qualität in der Energieversorgung. Bei der Erzeugungvon Bioenergie kommen eine Reihe von verschiedenen Technologien zur Anwendung, z.B. Verbrennung fester Brennstoffe, Vergasung sowie Gärung. Diese Technologien erzeugen Energie mittels unterschiedlicher biologischer Ressourcen , traditionelle Feldfrüchte und deren Rückstände, spezielle Energiepflanzen, Mist sowie der organische Anteil städtischer Abfälle. Die daraus erzeugte Bioenergie kann zum Kochen, zum Heizen, als Elektrizität oder als Treibstoff genutzt werden. Gerade in dieser Vielfalt liegt der potenzielle Gewinn für die Umwelt und die soziale sowie die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Bioenergie sollte nicht als ein Ersatz für Öl, sondern als Bestandteil des Portfolios erneuerbarer Energiequellen angesehen werden. Kohärente und sich gegenseitig unterstützende ökologische und Ökonomische Politikmaßnahmen könntenerforderlich sein, um die Entstehung einer global verbreiteten Bioenergieindustrie zu begünstigen, welche eine nachhaltige Entwicklung verfolgt. [source]

    Fish abundance and community composition in native and non-native plants following hydrilla colonisation at Lake Izabal, Guatemala

    Abstract, Fish community composition was assessed among six macrophyte habitats, including hydrilla, Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) Royle, common native species (bulrush, Scirpus spp., muskgrass, Chara spp., eelgrass, Vallisneria americana Michx. and Illinois pondweed, Potamogeton illinoensis Morong) and no-plants, to assess potential impacts of recent hydrilla colonisation on the littoral fish community at Lake Izabal, Guatemala. Fish biomass was significantly different among habitats, with hydrilla supporting the highest fish biomass. Fish density did not differ significantly among habitats. Total fish species richness was similar (12-15 species) among habitats, but community composition changed with macrophyte presence. Biomass of mojarra, Cichlasoma maculicauda Regan, which supported the most important subsistence fishery at the lake, was significantly different among habitats and had the greatest biomass in the hydrilla habitat. Although hydrilla may adversely affect native plants, lake access and other uses, it provided useful fish habitat and likely was not detrimental to the Lake Izabal fish community composition. [source]

    Distribution and biomass of an underfished vendace, Coregonus albula, population in a mesotrophic German reservoir

    Abstract, The distribution and overall biomass of an underfished vendace, Coregonus albula L., population in the mesotrophic Henne Reservoir (Germany) was studied using hydroacoustics and gill nets. Additionally, midwater trawling was carried out. Overall fish biomass, based on five hydroacoustic surveys (June to September 2002), ranged from 188 kg ha,1 in early August to 302 kg ha,1 in September 2002. The overall mean fish biomass was 256 kg ha,1 (±48 kg ha,1 SD). Biomass of fish smaller than 25 cm total length (mostly vendace) varied from 56 kg ha,1 in August to 99 kg ha,1 in September, with an overall mean fish biomass of 74 kg ha,1 (±17 kg ha,1 SD). The echograms showed temporal variation in fish distribution in Henne Reservoir. In June, fish were fairly evenly distributed over the whole reservoir but in September a dense aggregation of fish (mostly vendace) was found in the deeper water layers near the dam. The distribution of vendace stock, its impact on water quality and fisheries management, biomanipulation and effort for mass removal are discussed. [source]

    Biomass, nutrient and pigment content of beech (Fagus sylvatica) saplings infected with Phytophthora citricola, P. cambivora, P. pseudosyringae and P. undulata

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    F. Fleischmann
    Summary Fagus sylvatica saplings were infected with Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora pseudosyringae and Phytophthora undulata to study the influence of these root pathogens on total belowground and aboveground biomass, on the nutrient distribution within plants, on the concentration of plastid pigments, including tocopherol and on components of the xanthophyll cycle. Phytophthora citricola and P. cambivora infection significantly reduced total biomass of beech when compared with control plants and finally most of these plants died at the end of the experiment. However, beech invaded by the other two Phytophthora spp. did not differ from control plants and none of them was killed. Fine root length as well as the number of root tips of all infected beeches were reduced between 30 and 50%. The excellent growth of beech infected with P. pseudosyringae and P. undulata when compared with control plants was correlated with a strong increase of important root efficiency parameters. Phytophthora citricola and P. cambivora caused a significant reduction in nitrogen concentration of leaves in comparison with control and other infected plants, whereas this nutrient was slightly increased in fine and coarse roots. Furthermore, the phosphorus and potassium concentrations in leaves were impaired after infection with P. citricola. However, foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg were not affected by the different Phytophthora spp., whereas fine and coarse roots were significantly enriched with Ca in beech infected with P. citricola or P. cambivora. The concentrations of , -tocopherol and xanthophyll cycle pigments were increased in plants infected by P. citricola and P. cambivora, indicating that several reactive oxygen species might be formed in leaves during infection. Résumé Des plants de Fagus sylvatica ont été infectés par Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora pseudosyringae et Phytophthora undulata pour étudier l'effet de ces pathogènes racinaires sur la biomasse totale aérienne et racinaire, la distribution des éléments minéraux dans les plantes et la concentration en pigments des plastes, tocophérol et composants du cycle des xanthophylles. L'infection par P. citricola et P. cambivora a entraîné une réduction significative de la biomasse totale par rapport aux plantes témoins et la plupart des plants infectés sont morts au cours de l'expérience. Par contre, les hêtres infectés par les deux autres espèces de Phytophthora ne différent pas des témoins et aucune mortalité n'a été observée. Chez tous les hêtres infectés, une réduction de 30 à 50% de la longueur de racines fines et du nombre d'extrémités racinaires a été observée. La très bonne croissance des plants infectés par P. pseudosyringae et P. undulata par rapport aux témoins est associée à une forte augmentation de paramètres importants d'efficience racinaire. P. citricola et P. cambivora ont causé une réduction significative de la concentration foliaire en azote par rapport aux plantes témoins et aux autres plantes infectées, alors que la concentration était légèrement augmentée dans les fines et grosses racines. De plus, la concentration foliaire en phosphore et potassium a été altérée après infection par P. citricola. Les concentrations foliaires en Ca et Mg n'ont pas été affectées par les différentes espèces de Phytophthora, les fines et grosses racines étant significativement enrichies en Ca chez les plants infectés par P. citricola ou P. cambivora. La concentration en , -tocophérol et pigments du cycle des xanthophylles a augmenté dans les plants infectés par P. citricola et P. cambivora, suggérant la formation de plusieurs espèces actives de l'oxygène dans les feuilles pendant l'infection. Zusammenfassung Buchensämlinge wurden mit Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora pseudosyringae und mit Phytophthora undulata infiziert, um den Einfluss dieser Wurzelpathogene auf die oberirdische und unterirdische Biomasse, auf die Nährstoffverteilung innerhalb verschiedener Pflanzenorgane, sowie auf die Gehalte unterschiedlicher Photosynthesepigmente und Komponenten des Xanthophyll- Zyklus studieren zu können. Die Infektion mit P. citricola und P. cambivora führte zu einer deutlich reduzierten Gesamtbiomasse und am Versuchsende waren die meisten Pflanzen abgestorben. Dagegen überlebten alle mit P. pseudosyringae oder P. undulata infizierten Buchen und sie zeigten keine Unterschiede in ihren Biomassen verglichen mit Kontrollpflanzen bzw. übertrafen diese sogar. Die Feinwurzellänge und die Anzahl ihrer Wurzelspitzen war bei allen Phytophthora infizierten Pflanzen zwischen 30 und 50% im Vergleich zu denen der Kontrollen reduziert. Das ausgezeichnete Wachstum der P. pseudosyringae und P. undulata infizierten Pflanzen ging mit stark gesteigerten Wurzeleffizienzparametern einher. Die P. citricola und P. cambivora Infektion führte zu reduzierten Stickstoffgehalten in den Blättern. Die Gehalte in den Wurzeln waren jedoch leicht erhöht. Zudem wurden reduzierte Gehalte an Phosphor und Kalium in den Blättern gemessen. Die Calcium und Magnesium- Konzentrationen der Blätter unterschieden sich nicht von denen der Kontrollen. Allerdings wurde eine Calcium-Anreicherung in den Fein- und Grobwurzeln infizierter Pflanzen gemessen. Weiterhin zeigten wir, dass die Konzentrationen von , -Tocopherol und Pigmenten des Xanthophyll-Zyklus in Blättern P. citricola und P. cambivora infizierter Pflanzen erhöht waren, was möglicherweise auf die Bildung reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies hindeutet. [source]

    Effects of mute swan grazing on a keystone macrophyte

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Summary 1. This study describes the early summer foraging behaviour of mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the River Frome, a highly productive chalk stream in southern England in which Ranunculus penicillatus pseudofluitans is the dominant macrophyte. 2. A daily maximum of 41 ± 2.5 swans were present along the 1.1 km study reach during the study period (late May to the end of June). The river was the primary feeding habitat. Feeding activity on the river at dawn and dusk was much lower than during daylight, but we cannot rule out the possibility that swans fed during the hours of darkness. 3. The effects of herbivory on R. pseudofluitans biomass and morphology were quantified. Biomass was lower in grazed areas and swans grazed selectively on leaves in preference to stems. A lower proportion of stems from grazed areas possessed intact stem apices and flowering of the plant was reduced in grazed areas. 4. A model, based on the swans' daily consumption, was used to predict the grazing pressure of swans on R. pseudofluitans. The model accurately predicted the number of bird days supported by the study site, only if grazing was assumed to severely reduce R. pseudofluitans growth. The proportion of the initial R. pseudofluitans biomass consumed by a fixed number of swans was predicted to be greater when the habitat area was smaller, initial R. pseudofluitans biomass was lower and R. pseudofluitans was of lower food value. 5. We concluded that the flux of N and P through the study reach was largely unaffected by swan activity. The quality of R. pseudofluitans mesohabitat (the plant as habitat for invertebrates and fish) was significantly reduced by grazing which also indirectly contributed to reduced roughness (Manning's n) and by inference water depth. Wetted habitat area for fish and invertebrates would also be lowered over the summer period as a consequence of the reduction in water depth. It was estimated that, while grazing, an individual swan may eat the same mass of invertebrates per day as a 300-g trout. 6. There is a need to manage the conflict between mute swans and the keystone macrophyte, R. pseudofluitans, in chalk streams, and the modelling approach used here offers a potentially useful tool for this purpose. [source]

    Relationships between picophytoplankton and environmental variables in lakes along a gradient of water colour and nutrient content

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Stina Drakare
    SUMMARY 1. Biomass and production of picophytoplankton, phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton were measured in seven lakes, exhibiting a broad range in water colour because of humic substances. The aim of the study was to identify environmental variables explaining the absolute and relative importance of picophytoplankton. In addition, two dystrophic lakes were fertilised with inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen, to test eventual nutrient limitation of picophytoplankton in these systems. 2. Picophytoplankton biomass and production were highest in lakes with low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and DOC proved the factor explaining most variation in picophytoplankton biomass and production. The relationship between picophytoplankton and lake trophy was negative, most likely because much P was bound in humic complexes. Picophytoplankton biomass decreased after the additions of P and N. 3. Compared with heterotrophic bacterioplankton, picophytoplankton were most successful at the clearwater end of the lake water colour gradient. Phytoplankton dominated over heterotrophic bacteria in the clearwater systems possibly because heterotrophic bacteria in such lakes are dependent on organic carbon produced by phytoplankton. 4. Compared with other phytoplankton, picophytoplankton did best at intermediate DOC concentrations; flagellates dominated in the humic lakes and large autotrophic phytoplankton in the clearwater lakes. 5. Picophytoplankton were not better competitors than large phytoplankton in situations when heterotrophic bacteria had access to a non-algal carbon source. Neither did their small size lead to picophytoplankton dominance over large phytoplankton in the clearwater lakes. Possible reasons include the ability of larger phytoplankton to float or swim to reduce sedimentation losses and to acquire nutrients by phagotrophy. [source]

    On the different nature of top-down and bottom-up effects in pelagic food webs

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2002
    Z. Maciej Gliwicz
    SUMMARY 1.,Each individual planktonic plant or animal is exposed to the hazards of starvation and risk of predation, and each planktonic population is under the control of resource limitation from the bottom up (growth and reproduction) and by predation from the top down (mortality). While the bottom-up and top-down impacts are traditionally conceived as compatible with each other, field population-density data on two coexisting Daphnia species suggest that the nature of the two impacts is different. Rates of change, such as the rate of individual body growth, rate of reproduction, and each species' population growth rate, are controlled from the bottom up. State variables, such as biomass, individual body size and population density, are controlled from the top down and are fixed at a specific level regardless of the rate at which they are produced. 2.,According to the theory of functional responses, carnivorous and herbivorous predators react to prey density rather than to the rate at which prey are produced or reproduced. The predator's feeding rate (and thus the magnitude of its effect on prey density) should hence be regarded as a functional response to increasing resource concentration. 3.,The disparity between the bottom-up and top-down effects is also apparent in individual decision making, where a choice must be made between accepting the hazards of hunger and the risks of predation (lost calories versus loss of life). 4.,As long as top-down forces are effective, the disparity with bottom-up effects seems evident. In the absence of predation, however, all efforts of an individual become subordinate to the competition for resources. Biomass becomes limited from the bottom up as soon as the density of a superior competitor has increased to the carrying capacity of a given habitat. Such a shift in the importance of bottom-up control can be seen in zooplankton in habitats from which fish have been excluded. [source]

    Biofuel Cells: Harnessing Biomass or Body Fluids for the Generation of Electrical Power

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 1 2009
    Itamar Willner Professor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A semimechanistic model predicting the growth and production of the bioenergy crop Miscanthus×giganteus: description, parameterization and validation

    GCB BIOENERGY, Issue 4 2009
    Abstract Biomass based bioenergy is promoted as a major sustainable energy source which can simultaneously decrease net greenhouse gas emissions. Miscanthus×giganteus (M.×giganteus), a C4 perennial grass with high nitrogen, water, and light use efficiencies, is regarded as a promising energy crop for biomass production. Mathematical models which can accurately predict M.×giganteus biomass production potential under different conditions are critical to evaluate the feasibility of its production in different environments. Although previous models based on light-conversion efficiency have been shown to provide good predictions of yield, they cannot easily be used in assessing the value of physiological trait improvement or ecosystem processes. Here, we described in detail the physical and physiological processes of a previously published generic mechanistic eco-physiological model, WIMOVAC, adapted and parameterized for M.×giganteus. Parameterized for one location in England, the model was able to realistically predict daily field diurnal photosynthesis and seasonal biomass at a range of other sites from European studies. The model provides a framework that will allow incorporation of further mechanistic information as it is developed for this new crop. [source]

    Lagged effects of experimental warming and doubled precipitation on annual and seasonal aboveground biomass production in a tallgrass prairie

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Abstract Global climate change is expected to result in a greater frequency of extreme weather, which can cause lag effects on aboveground net primary production (ANPP). However, our understanding of lag effects is limited. To explore lag effects following extreme weather, we applied four treatments (control, doubled precipitation, 4 °C warming, and warming plus doubled precipitation) for 1 year in a randomized block design and monitored changes in ecosystem processes for 3 years in an old-field tallgrass prairie in central Oklahoma. Biomass was estimated twice in the pretreatment year, and three times during the treatment and posttreatment years. Total plant biomass was increased by warming in spring of the treatment year and by doubled precipitation in summer. However, double precipitation suppressed fall production. During the following spring, biomass production was significantly suppressed in the formerly warmed plots 2 months after treatments ceased. Nine months after the end of treatments, fall production remained suppressed in double precipitation and warming plus double precipitation treatments. Also, the formerly warmed plots still had a significantly greater proportion of C4 plants, while the warmed plus double precipitation plots retained a high proportion of C3 plants. The lag effects of warming on biomass did not match the temporal patterns of soil nitrogen availability determined by plant root simulator probes, but coincided with warming-induced decreases in available soil moisture in the deepest layers of soil which recovered to the pretreatment pattern approximately 10 months after the treatments ceased. Analyzing the data with an ecosystem model showed that the lagged temporal patterns of effects of warming and precipitation on biomass can be fully explained by warming-induced differences in soil moisture. Thus, both the experimental results and modeling analysis indicate that water availability regulates lag effects of warming on biomass production. [source]

    Utilization of semi-natural grassland through integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass.

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 4 2009

    Abstract A procedure (Integrated Generation of Solid Fuel and Biogas from Biomass, IFBB) was developed which uses a screw press to separate the readily digestible constituents of mature grassland biomass into a press fluid for conversion into biogas and a fibrous press cake for processing into a solid fuel. Effects of mechanical dehydration and prior hydrothermal conditioning at different temperatures (5, 60 and 80°C) on concentrations of organic compounds in the press fluid and on methane production in batch experiments were evaluated for five semi-natural grasslands typical of mountain areas of Germany. Results show that the crude protein concentration of the press fluids was higher and crude fibre concentration was lower than that of the parent material (herbage conserved as silage). Digestion tests in batch fermenters showed that the methane yield of the press fluids was double [397,426 normal litre (NL) kg,1 volatile solids (VS) after 13 d] that of the whole-crop grassland silage (218 NL kg,1 VS after 27 d) but no consistent effect of higher temperature during conditioning was observed. Within 13 d of fermentation the decomposition of the organic matter (OM) that occurred in the press fluids was 0·90, whereas after 27 d of fermentation more than 0·40 of the OM remained undigested in the whole-crop silage, pointing at a marked reduction in retention time for anaerobic digestion of press fluids in continuous systems. Press fluids produced 0·90 of the maximum methane yield after 4 to 7 d compared with 19 days for the whole-crop silage. [source]

    Root and rhizome systems of perennial grasses grown in Inner Mongolian grassland, China

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
    Min Ao
    Abstract The root and rhizome systems of dominant perennial grasses in Inner Mongolian grassland were clarified. We surveyed the vertical distribution of root and rhizome biomass in the natural stands, and the changes of under-ground biomass and the branching pattern of rhizomes for transplanted plants in a container experiment. Most roots of Leymus chinensis, Bromus inermis, Elymus dahuricus and Agropyron cristatum were distributed in the soil depth of 0,10 cm. Roots of E. dahuricus and A. cristatum were distributed in a shallower soil layer, but those of L. chinensis and B. inermis were distributed in a deeper soil layer. Biomass of above-ground parts increased with growth, resulting in a decreasing ratio of under-ground parts to total biomass. Rhizomes of L. chinensis and B. inermis were distributed in the soil depth of 0,10 cm, but E. dahuricus and A. cristatum did not have rhizomes. L. chinensis had longer rhizomes and new ramets were produced away from their mother plant. B. inermis had many short rhizomes and produced daughter plants near their mother plant. [source]

    Post-Impoundment Biomass and Composition of Phytoplankton in the Yangtze River

    Hui Zeng
    Abstract Damming, and thus alteration of stream flow, promotes higher phytoplankton populations and encourages algal blooms (density >106 cells L,1) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Phytoplankton composition and biomass were studied in the Yangtze River from March 2004 to May 2005. 107 taxa were identified. Diatoms were the dominant group, followed by Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. In the Yangtze River, algal abundance varied from 3.13 × 103 to 3.83 × 106 cells L,1, and algal biomass was in the range of 0.06 to 659 mg C m,3. Levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and silica did not show consistent longitudinal changes along the river and were not correlated with phytoplankton parameters. Phytoplankton abundance was negatively correlated with main channel discharge (Spearman r = ,1.000, P < 0.01). Phytoplankton abundance and biomass in the Yangtze River are mainly determined by the hydrological conditions rather than by nutrient concentrations. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    The Role of Fish Communities in Water Quality Management of a Large Shallow Lake

    István Tátrai
    Abstract Management measures of Lake Balaton such as wetland reconstruction at the main inflow to the lake along with the "unplanned" commercial fishery led to great changes in the density and biomass of fish populations. There was no significant difference in CPUE data between the two, eastern and western, basins. Biomass of total fish stock in Lake Balaton has decreased substantially, 2,3 times between 1991,1999, and ranges between 120,194 kg ha,1. Bottom-up effects are more important than the top-down effects due to the impact of internal nutrient load. Changes in the biomass and thus the activity of omnivorous fish in the lake lowered the intensity of various indirect effects and feedback mechanisms causing changes in the nutrient metabolism of the lake. Intensified fishery effort in Lake Balaton did not result in an increased stock of piscivores. The ratio of piscivores and omnivores remained at 5% during the whole study period. Despite this low piscivores to omnivores ratio, the water quality has improved in all basins. [source]

    Effects of Fertilizer Phosphorus on Yield Traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) Under Field Conditions

    A. Yemane
    Abstract Cool-season food legumes (CSFLs) are important supplementary protein sources and soil fertility restorers for subsistence farmers in Ethiopia. Yields of CSFLs, however, are limited by low soil fertility, as they are grown in poor soils, often without fertilizer. Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) is one of the CSFLs cultivated in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. It is highly appreciated by the local people for its taste. This paper reports on the effect of phosphorus (P) on the yield and nutrition value of Dekoko under field conditions, and compares the results with those obtained for Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). The experiment was conducted in the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons. Three rates of P equivalent to zero, 30, and 60 kg ha,1 P2O5 were tested. Biomass, leaf area index, branches/plant, pods/m2 and yield responded positively while seeds/pod and seed weight were not significantly affected by P. Tissue P contents in shoots and roots increased with an increase in P application rate, while P in the nodules was not affected. Crude protein (CP) content increased from 24.9 % of dry matter (DM) at P0 to 26.2 % at P2, and from 24.3 % at P0 to 25.2 % at P2, in Dekoko and Ater seeds, respectively, while total sugars decreased with an increase in P application rate. Cysteine in Dekoko and asparagine and threonine in both varieties decreased, while lysine and other amino acids were not significantly affected by P. P improved seed yield and CP content without greatly affecting the amino acid profile of Dekoko, when compared with that of the FAO/WHO (1991, Protein Quality Evaluation. Food and Nutrition, Paper 51. FAO/WHO, Rome) standard pattern of amino acid for children 2,5 years of age. Thus, improving yield through fertilization may help to improve nutritional quality and household food security for subsistence farmers. [source]

    Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

    R.H. Venderbosch
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited scale of the conversion process and the competition with the food industry. To overcome such problems, an integral processing route for the conversion of (non-feed) biomass (residues) to transportation fuels is proposed. It includes a pretreatment process by fast pyrolysis, followed by upgrading to produce a crude-oil-like product, and finally co-refining in traditional refineries. RESULTS: This paper contributes to the understanding of pyrolysis oil upgrading. The processes include a thermal treatment step and/or direct hydroprocessing. At temperatures up to 250 °C (in the presence of H2 and catalyst) parallel reactions take place including re-polymerization (water production), decarboxylation (limited CO2 production) and hydrotreating. Water is produced in small quantities (approx. 10% extra), likely caused by repolymerization. This repolymerization takes place faster (order of minutes) than the hydrotreating reactions (order of tens of minutes, hours). CONCLUSIONS: In hydroprocessing of bio-oils, a pathway is followed by which pyrolysis oils are further polymerized if H2 and/or catalyst is absent, eventually to char components, or, with H2/catalyst, to stabilized components that can be further upgraded. Results of the experiments suggest that specifically the cellulose-derived fraction of the oil needs to be transformed first, preferably into alcohols in a ,mild hydrogenation' step. This subsequently allows further dehydration and hydrogenation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Biomass and leaf-level gas exchange characteristics of three African savanna C4 grass species under optimum growth conditions

    K. B. Mantlana
    Abstract C4 savanna grass species, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis lehmanniana and Panicum repens, were grown under optimum growth conditions with the aim of characterizing their above- and below-ground biomass allocation and the response of their gas exchange to changes in light intensity, CO2 concentration and leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit gradient (Dl). Digitaria eriantha showed the largest above- and below-ground biomass, high efficiency in carbon gain under light-limiting conditions, high water use efficiency (WUE) and strong stomatal sensitivity to Dl (P = 0.002; r2 = 0.5). Panicum repens had a high aboveground biomass and attained high light saturated photosynthetic rates (Asat, 47 ,mol m,2 s,1), stomatal conductance, (gsat, 0.25 mol m,2 s,1) at relatively high WUE. Eragrostis lehmanniana had almost half the biomass of other species, and had similar Asat and gsat but were attained at lower WUE than the other species. This species also showed the weakest stomatal response to Dl (P = 0.19, r2 = 0. 1). The potential ecological significance of the contrasting patterns of biomass allocation and variations in gas exchange parameters among the species are discussed. Résumé On a fait pousser des espèces herbeuses de savane de type C4, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis lehmanniana et Panicum repens, dans des conditions optimales dans le but de caractériser l'allocation de leur biomasse aérienne et racinaire et la réponse de leur échange gazeux à des changements d'intensité de la lumière, de concentrations de CO2, et à un gradient déficitaire (Dl) de pression de vapeur feuille-air. D. eriantha montrait la plus grande biomasse aérienne et racinaire, une grande efficience de l'assimilation de carbone dans des conditions de luminosité limitée, une grande efficience d'utilisation de l'eau (WUE) et une forte sensibilité des stomates à Dl (P = 0,002; r2 = 0,5). P. repens avait une grande biomasse aérienne et atteignait des taux photosynthétiques élevés en lumière saturée (Asat, 47 ,mol m,2 s,1), et une conductance stomatique (gsat 0.25 mol m,2 s,1) à une WUE relativement élevée. E. lehmanniana avait une biomasse qui était presque la moitié de celle des autres espèces et avait un Asat et un gsat similaires mais qui étaient atteints à une WUE plus basse que les autres espèces. Cette espèce montrait aussi la plus faible réponse stomatique àDl (P = 0,19, r2 = 0,1). L'on discute de la signification écologique potentielle de ces schémas contrastés d'allocations de biomasse et des variations des paramètres des échanges gazeux entre les espèces. [source]

    Desert shrubs have negative or neutral effects on annuals at two levels of water availability in arid lands of South Australia

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    James T. Weedon
    Abstract 1Perennial plants have been shown to facilitate understorey annual plant species in arid lands through the modification of spatial patterns of resources and conditions. This effect can result from a balance between simultaneously positive and negative interactions, both direct and indirect. This balance may shift with temporal variability in water availability. 2We conducted a field experiment in a chenopod shrubland in South Australia to separate the effects of shade, below-ground competition, and soil modification by shrubs on the performance of annual plants, and to determine if the strength and direction of the interaction shifted with changes in water availability. 3Annual plant diversity and seedling density was highest in plots established in open sites away from the dominant shrubs (Maireana sedifolia). Experimental removal of M. sedifolia increased seedling density compared to plots under undisturbed shrubs and plots where the removed shrub was replaced with artificial shade. Shading of open plots also reduced seedling density. Annual plant biomass was highest in areas where shrubs had been removed and was reduced by artificial shading. Biomass was higher in open plots than under intact shrubs. Experimental water addition did not alter plant density, but increased biomass across all treatments, particularly in artificially shaded bush plots. 4Synthesis. Our results show that the overall effect of shrubs on the annual plant community in the system is negative under the range of water availabilities experienced during the experiment. This negative net-effect results from a combination of simultaneous facilitation via soil modification, and above- and below-ground competition. Assessment in different systems of different combinations of mechanisms that have simultaneously positive and negative effects will allow us to refine hypotheses seeking to explain the relative importance of facilitation across spatial and temporal gradients. [source]

    Juvenile shrubs show differences in stress tolerance, but no competition or facilitation, along a stress gradient

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    Lisa A. Donovan
    Summary 1,We investigated experimentally differences in abiotic stress tolerance and the effects of plant,plant interactions for two desert shrubs, Chrysothamnus nauseosus and Sarcobatus vermiculatus, along a soil salinity (NaCl) and boron (B) gradient at Mono Lake, California, USA. Based on differences in natural distribution, and the classical expectation of a trade-off between competitive ability and stress tolerance, we hypothesized that (i) Chrysothamnus would have greater competitive ability than Sarcobatus at the low salinity end of the gradient, and that (ii) Sarcobatus would be more stress tolerant than Chrysothamnus. 2,Juvenile target plants of Chrysothamnus and Sarcobatus were planted into four sites along the gradient. Biomass was determined by destructive harvests over two growing seasons. At each site, interspecific relative competitive ability was assessed as the effect of Sarcobatus neighbours on Chrysothamnus targets compared to the effect of Chrysothamnus neighbours on Sarcobatus targets. Stress tolerance was assessed as the ability of each species to survive and grow, in the absence of neighbours, at different sites along the gradient. 3,The two species did not differ in the relative strength of plant,plant interactions, providing no support for the expectation that Chrysothamnus had greater competitive ability than Sarcobatus. Furthermore, there was no evidence for competition or facilitation, either interspecific or intraspecific, at any site in either year of the study. However, fertilization treatments demonstrated nutrient limitations, soil water reached limiting levels and root systems of targets and neighbours overlapped substantially. It is therefore surprising that plant,plant interactions among juveniles apparently play little role in the growth and survival of shrubs in this saline desert habitat. 4,Sarcobatus was more stress tolerant than Chrysothamnus and the two species performed optimally at different sites along the gradient. Sarcobatus juveniles grew best at the two most saline sites and survived at all sites, whereas Chrysothamnus juveniles grew best at a low-salinity site and did not survive at the most saline site. The difference in site of optimal performance may be due to differences in nutrient limitations or to interactions between nutrient availability and sodium (Na) and B tolerance. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    Íñigo Sánchez
    The impact of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt on a low intertidal macroalgal assemblage was assessed at a semiexposed rocky shore in northern Spain between 2002 and 2004. Sargassum muticum plants were removed from the mature macroalgal assemblage and from those occurring along the successional process of the assemblage. Biomass, richness, diversity, and percentage cover of macroalgae in experimental plots were compared with unmanipulated controls. The effect of S. muticum removal on the macroalgal assemblage more than 2 years after the beginning of the experiment was negligible. Moreover, no differences between treatments were detected in the general patterns of succession. Only significant differences in S. muticum abundance were detected between treatments at the end of the experiment. We suggest that the low abundance of S. muticum at this intertidal level and its pseudoperennial life cycle may limit competition with native macroalgae. However, long-term removal experiments may be a more indicator of the impact of S. muticum at the upper limit of its vertical distribution. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
    Ricardo Scrosati
    Little is known about the dynamics and the ecological interactions among ramets (fronds) from populations of clonal red seaweeds. Small ramets are very difficult to tag, so their growth cannot be monitored directly. The temporal variation of the relationship between stand biomass and ramet density offers information on ramet performance. We calculated this relationship for an intertidal population of Pterocladiella capillacea (Gmelin) Santelices et Hommersand (Gelidiales) from Baja California, Mexico. Biomass and density were positively correlated on an annual basis, indicating that biomass accumulated without involving self-thinning among ramets. This contrasts with nonclonal seaweeds, for which self-thinning among individuals occurs during growth, but agrees with other clonal red seaweeds, such as Chondrus crispus Stackhouse and Mazzaella cornucopiae (Postels et Ruprecht) Hommersand (both Gigartinales). The growth pattern for these members of the Gelidiales and of the Gigartinales holds despite differences in holdfast morphology and ramet branching degree and despite differences in the capacity of coalescence during early stages, known only for the Gigartinales. The positive slope for the dynamic biomass,density relationship, on a bilogarithmic scale, was statistically steeper for M. cornucopiae than for P. capillacea and for C. crispus. This suggests that the addition of new ramets during the growth season may be relatively more beneficial for biomass accumulation rates for M. cornucopiae. This would be expected for high-intertidal species subjected to strong abiotic stress, for which ramet crowding constitutes a key protection. Pterocladiella capillacea occurs at the mid-intertidal zone and C. crispus at the subtidal zone, so ramets would be relatively less important in that respect. [source]

    The influence of Prosopis canopies on understorey vegetation: Effects of landscape position

    J.D. Schade
    Abstract. The influence of canopy trees and shrubs on under-storey plants is complex and context-dependent. Canopy plants can exert positive, negative or neutral effects on production, composition and diversity of understorey plant communities, depending on local environmental conditions and position in the landscape. We studied the influence of Prosopis velutina (mesquite) on soil moisture and nitrogen availability, and understorey vegetation along a topographic gradient in the Sonoran Desert. We found significant increases in both soil moisture and N along the gradient from desert to riparian zone. In addition, P. velutina canopies had positive effects, relative to open areas, on soil moisture in the desert, and soil N in both desert and intermediate terrace. Biomass of understorey vegetation was highest and species richness was lowest in the riparian zone. Canopies had a positive effect on biomass in both desert and terrace, and a negative effect on species richness in the terrace. The effect of the canopy depended on landscape position, with desert canopies more strongly influencing soil moisture and biomass and terrace canopies more strongly influencing soil N and species richness. Individual species distributions suggested interspecific variation in response to water- vs. N-availability; they strongly influence species composition at both patch and landscape position levels. [source]

    Ecological implications of biomass and morphotype variations of bacterioplankton: an example in a coastal zone of the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean)

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    Rosabruna La Ferla
    Abstract This study had the objective of quantifying the variability in abundance, cell volume, morphology and C content of a natural bacterioplankton community in a coastal zone of the North Adriatic Sea during two periods (February and June) of two consequent years (1996 and 1997). We used epifluorescence microscopy with Acridine Orange staining procedures and a microphotographic technique. Low variability in bacterial abundance (range 0.3,3.1 × 105 cells ml,1) occurred between summer and winter periods. Conversely, the cell volume and the calculated carbon content changed greatly with warm and cold periods (ranges: 0.015,0.303 ,m3 and 5.83,42.17 fg C cell,1, respectively). Elongated bacteria were dominant while coccoid cells prevailed only in February 1997. Biomass showed high variability (range 0.12,10.21 ,g C l,1) whilst the abundance did not show noticeable differences among the sampling periods. As a consequence, quantification of bacterial biomass based solely on cell abundance must be considered with caution because the true biomass could depend on variability in cell volumes and morphotypes. [source]

    Macrofauna Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Sea

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Ingrid Kröncke
    Abstract., During two expeditions with RV ,Meteor' in summer 1993 and winter 1997/98 the structural and functional diversity of the benthic system of the highly oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean deep sea was investigated. The macrofauna communities were dominated by polychaetes even at the deepest stations. The fauna at shallow stations was dominated by surface deposit feeders, whereas subsurface deposit feeders and predators generally increased with depth. A high percentage of suspension-feeding Porifera was found in the Levantine Basin. Mean abundance and number of taxa of both expeditions were significantly correlated to depth and distance to the nearest coast as well as to the total organic carbon (TOC) content in sediments. Numbers of taxa and abundance decreased generally with depth, although lowest numbers were not found at the deepest stations but in the extremely oligotrophic Levantine and Ierapetra Basin. Biomass measured during the second cruise was extremely low in the Ierapetra Basin and comparable to other extreme oligotrophic seas. The significant correlations found for TOC contents and macrofauna with distance to coast during both expeditions apparently reflect the role of hydrographically governed transport of organic matter produced in coastal regions into greater and extreme depths of the Mediterranean Sea. Seasonal differences in macrofauna communities due to seasonal differences in food supply were not found. However, recent large-scale hydrographic changes (Eastern Mediterranean Transient, EMT) might change the oligotrophy and, thus, the structure of the benthic communities in the Eastern Mediterranean deep sea. [source]

    The Sample Size Necessary to Assess Changes in Fish Biomass , A Reply

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    David Mouillot
    Abstract. In this article, we compare biomass results for three fish species (Symphodus ocellatus, Serranus scriba and Diplodus annularis) between May 1993 and May 2000 in the Bonifacio Strait Marine Reserve. The data were obtained from seagrass meadows using the visual census method. A randomised procedure was used to test the null hypothesis of biomass equality. To this end, decreasing sample sizes were used for the May 2000 data to determine the sample size necessary to reject the null hypothesis (5 % level). For Symphodus ocellatus, 10 samples (fixed points) were necessary to reject the null hypothesis, whereas 15 samples were required for Diplodus annularis. The null hypothesis was never rejected for Serranus scriba regardless of the sample size considered. These results are discussed, as is the power statistical analysis proposed by Ortiz (2002; this issue, pp. 1,,,9), to determine the optimal sample size necessary to detect perturbation effects in the marine environment. Although the power analysis is certainly a useful method to determine the sampling design in assessment the effect of marine reserves on fish biomass, the magnitude of the marine reserve effect remains problematic in ecology. [source]

    Is plant performance limited by abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 1 2005
    A meta-analysis of studies published between 198
    Summary ,,We conducted meta-analyses of 290 published field and glasshouse trials to determine the effects of various agricultural practices on mycorrhizal colonization in nonsterile soils, and the consequence of those effects on yield, biomass, and phosphorus (P) concentration. ,,Mycorrhizal colonization was increased most by inoculation (29% increase), followed by shortened fallow (20%) and reduced soil disturbance (7%). The effect of crop rotation depended on whether the crop was mycorrhizal. Increased colonization resulted in a yield increase in the field of 23% across all management practices. ,,Biomass at harvest and shoot P concentration in early season were increased by inoculation (57 and 33%, respectively) and shortened fallow (55 and 24%). Reduced disturbance increased shoot P concentration by 27%, but biomass was not significantly affected. Biomass was significantly reduced in 2% of all trials in which there was a significant increase in colonization. ,,Irrespective of management practice, an increased mycorrhizal colonization was less likely to increase biomass if either soil P or indigenous inoculum potential was high. [source]