Biomarker Tests (biomarker + test)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Up-and-Coming Markers: Myeloperoxidase, a Novel Biomarker Test for Heart Failure and Acute Coronary Syndrome Application?

Christoph Sinning MD
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a mammalian enzyme responsible for generation of hypochlorite. The advantage of myeloperoxidase for use as a biomarker in the setting of heart failure and acute coronary syndrome is the early increase of MPO concentration in response to the acute event. In the setting of heart failure the reported independency of coronary artery disease and general inflammation, as indicated by MPO concentration in comparison to other inflammatory markers or in subgroups of patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, has to be highlighted. In terms of ACS, inclusion of MPO into a multiple marker strategy might add to enhance diagnosis and therapy decision making. Therefore, MPO is a biomarker worthwhile of further evaluation in the setting of cardiovascular disease. Congest Heart Fail. 2008;14(4 suppl 1):46,48. 2008 Le Jacq [source]

Detection of environmental androgens: A novel method based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of spiggin, the stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) glue protein

Ioanna Katsiadaki
Abstract We report the development and validation of a novel in vivo biomarker test for waterborne androgens. During breeding, male sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) manufacture a glue protein, spiggin, in their kidneys that they use to build their nests. Spiggin production is under the control of androgens. Until now, however, it has only been possible to quantify its production by measurement of the height of kidney epithelial cells. In the present study, we report the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for spiggin and demonstrate its application to the measurement of spiggin in the kidneys of female sticklebacks that have been exposed to androgens in water. Results from the ELISA procedure revealed a strong correlation with measurement of kidney epithelial cell height (r2 = 0.93). However, the ELISA was much quicker and had a considerably higher response range (100,000-fold vs fourfold). Clear, graded responses in spiggin production were obtained by exposing intact females to increasing concentrations of 17,-methyltestosterone and 5,-dihydrotestosterone over three-week test periods. The lowest effective concentrations for these two steroids were 100 ng/L and 3 ,g/L, respectively. Female sticklebacks that were exposed to pulp mill effluent also produced spiggin in their kidneys. Possession of an androgen-regulated protein by the female stickleback makes it a unique bioassay organism for detecting androgenic contamination in the aquatic environment. [source]

CSF amyloid-, 1-38 and 1-42 in FTD and AD: Biomarker performance critically depends on the detergent accessible fraction

Mirko Bibl Dr.
Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A,1-38, A,1-40, and A,1-42 were comparatively analyzed by amyloid-beta SDS-PAGE with Western immunoblot (A,-SDS-PAGE/immunoblot), electrochemiluminescence detection and ELISA (MSD/ELISA) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n,=,40), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n,=,30), and other dementias (n,=,50) and nondemented disease controls (n,=,30). CSF A,-peptide concentrations were higher and selective decreases of CSF A,1-38 in FTD and A,1-42 in AD were more evident as measured after SDS-denaturizing of samples by A,-SDS-PAGE/immunoblot. The SDS-accessible pool of CSF A,1-38 and A,1-42, represented by the individual gain of A,-peptide yield using A,-SDS-PAGE/immunoblot, was reduced in both FTD and AD. Accordingly, biomarker accuracies of A,1-38 and A,1-42 for detection of FTD and AD, respectively declined as determined by MSD/ELISA. We conclude that a pool of CSF A,1-38 and A,1-42, which shows disease-specific reductions in FTD and AD, may be bound to carriers and can be released by SDS. Assessing this SDS-accessible A,-peptide pool may crucially enhance the accuracy of CSF biomarker tests. Identifying disease-specific binding properties of affected A, carriers may elucidate pathogenic aspects and open up a novel field for therapeutic approaches. [source]

Metrological sharp shooting for plasma proteins and peptides: The need for reference materials for accurate measurements in clinical proteomics and in vitro diagnostics to generate reliable results

Frank Vitzthum Dr.
Abstract Reliable study results are necessary for the assessment of discoveries, including those from proteomics. Reliable study results are also crucial to increase the likelihood of making a successful choice of biomarker candidates for verification and subsequent validation studies, a current bottleneck for the transition to in vitro diagnostic (IVD). In this respect, a major need for improvement in proteomics appears to be accuracy of measurements, including both trueness and precision of measurement. Standardization and total quality management systems (TQMS) help to provide accurate measurements and reliable results. Reference materials are an essential part of standardization and TQMS in IVD and are crucial to provide metrological correct measurements and for the overall quality assurance process. In this article we give an overview on how reference materials are defined, prepared and what role they play in standardization and TQMS to support the generation of reliable results. We discuss how proteomics can support the establishment of reference materials and biomarker tests for IVD applications, how current reference materials used in IVD may be beneficially applied in proteomics, and we provide considerations on the establishment of reference materials specific for proteomics. For clarity, we solely focus on reference materials related to serum and plasma. [source]