Biomarker Research (biomarker + research)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Advancing Alcohol Biomarkers Research

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2010
Cynthia F. Bearer
Biomarkers to detect past alcohol use and identify alcohol-related diseases have long been pursued as important tools for research into alcohol use disorders as well as for clinical and treatment applications and other settings. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a workshop titled "Workshop on Biomarkers for Alcohol-Induced Disorders" in June 2008. The intent of this workshop was to review and discuss recent progress in the development and implementation of biomarkers for alcohol use and alcohol-related disorders with a goal to formulate a set of recommendations to use to stimulate and advance research progress in this critical area of alcoholism research. Presentations at this workshop reviewed the current status of alcohol biomarkers, providing a summary of the history of biomarkers and the major goals of alcohol biomarker research. Moreover, presentations provided a comprehensive overview of the current status of several well-recognized biomarkers of alcohol use, a summary of recent studies to characterize novel biomarkers and their validation, along with perspectives and experiences from other NIH institutes and from other federal agencies and industry, related to regulatory issues. Following these presentations, a panel discussion focused on a set of issues presented by the organizers of this workshop. These discussion points addressed: (i) issues related to strategies to be adopted to stimulate biomarker discovery and application, (ii) the relevance of animal studies in biomarker development and the status of biomarkers in basic science studies, and (iii) issues related to the opportunities for clinical and commercial applications. This article summarizes these perspectives and highlights topics that constituted the basis for recommendations to enhance alcohol biomarker research. [source]

Proteome analysis of human monocytic THP-1 cells primed with oxidized low-density lipoproteins

Jeong Han Kang
Abstract Native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) possess a wide variety of biological properties, and play a central role in atherogenesis. In this study, we used a proteomic analysis of human monocyte THP-1 cells induced with oxLDL or with LDL, to identify proteins potentially involved in atherosclerotic processes. Of the 2500,proteins detected, 93,were differentially expressed as a result of priming with LDL or oxLDL. The proteins were unambiguously identified by comparing the masses of their tryptic peptides with those of all known proteins using MALDI,TOF,MS and the NCBI database. The largest differences in expression were observed for vimentin (94-fold increase), meningioma-expressed antigen,6 (48-fold increase), serine/threonine protein phosphatase,2A (40-fold increase), and beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (15-fold increase). In contrast, the abundance of an unnamed protein product and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decreased 30-fold and 25-fold, respectively. The expression of some selected proteins was confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR analyses. The proteins identified in this study are attractive candidates for further biomarker research. This description of the altered protein profiles induced by oxLDL in human monocytes will support functional studies of the macrophage-derived foam cells involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. [source]

Body fluid proteomics: Prospects for biomarker discovery

Sung-Min Ahn
Abstract Many diseases are caused by perturbations of cellular signaling pathways and related pathway networks as a result of genetic aberrations. These perturbations are manifested by altered cellular protein profiles in the fluids bathing tissue/organs (i.e., the tissue interstitial fluid, TIF). A major challenge of clinical chemistry is to quantitatively map these perturbed protein profiles , the so-called "signatures of disease" , using modern proteomic technologies. This information can be utilized to design protein biomarkers for the early detection of disease, monitoring disease progression and efficacy of drug action. Here, we discuss the use of body fluids in the context of prospective biomarker discovery, and the marked 1000,1500-fold dilution of body fluid proteins, during their passage from TIF to the circulatory system. Further, we discuss proteomics strategies aimed at depleting major serum proteins, especially albumin, in order to focus on low-abundance protein/peptides in plasma. A major limitation of depletion strategies is the removal of low-molecular weight protein/peptides which specifically bind major plasma proteins. We present a prototype model, using albumin, for understanding the multifaceted nature of biomarker research, highlighting the involvement of albumin in Alzheimer's disease. This model underscores the need for a system-level understanding for biomarker research and personalized medicine. [source]

A proof-of-principle gel-free proteomics strategy for the identification of predictive biomarkers for the onset of pre-eclampsia

RT Blankley
Objective, Progress in the prevention and treatment of women at risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) still remains hindered by the lack of clinical screening tools that can accurately predict which mothers are at risk. The identification and validation of predictive biomarkers is therefore seen as a critical milestone towards improved healthcare provision and the clinical testing of new therapeutic strategies. Gel-free proteomic technologies offer the capability of analysing hundreds of plasma proteins simultaneously, but as yet these methods have not been applied to pregnancy complications. To assess the feasibility of such an approach to plasma biomarker research in pregnancy we have applied the technique to samples from women with PE to gestation-matched controls. Sample, Pooled plasma samples taken at time of disease from women with PE (n = 23) and gestation-matched controls (n = 23). Methods, Proteomics strategy for relative quantification of proteins using mass spectrometry. Results, We identified several differences, including elevated levels of endoglin, PAPP-A and PSG1 in PE plasma. Increased levels of endoglin were validated using immunoassay analysis of individual plasma samples. Conclusions, Although at a relatively early stage, this mass spectrometry-based approach shows promise as a tool to identify global protein changes in plasma. The application of these methods to pre-disease samples is the next step in the identification of clinically useful biomarkers. [source]

Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene and related genes as determinants of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors sensitivity in lung cancer

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 12 2007
Tetsuya Mitsudomi
Recent discovery of mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung adenocarcinoma greatly stimulated biomarker research on predictive factors for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although patients with activating mutations of the EGFR generally respond to EGFR TKIs very well, it is natural to assume that there is no sole determinant, considering great complexity and redundancy of the EGFR pathway. Subsequently, roles of different types of EGFR mutations or mutations of genes that are members of the EGFR pathway such as KRAS and HER2 have been evaluated. In this review, we summarize the recent findings about how mutations of the EGFR and related genes affect sensitivity to EFGR-TKIs. We also discuss molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs that is almost inevitable in EGFR-TKI therapy. The door for genotype-based treatment of lung cancer is beginning to open, and through these efforts, it will be possible to slow the progression of lung cancer and eventually, to decrease mortality from lung cancer. (Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 1817,1824) [source]

Prioritizing migraine biomarkers research

David Gurwitz
Abstract Migraine is among the most common chronic disorders in the developed countries, affecting up to 17% of adult women and 6% of adult men. It is also among the chronic disorders most commonly associated with recurring absence from work. It has been estimated that in the United States the indirect annual societal cost of migraine, mostly as lost work, is US$12 billion. Migraine diagnosis and treatment is hindered by the lack of reliable serum or genetic biomarkers that could potentially improve treatment choices. Research programs focused on identifying and developing migraine biomarkers for both prevention and treatment must be included in the national biomedical research agenda. Drug Dev Res 68:267,269, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]