Biology Research (biology + research)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Whither Conservation Biology Research?

Gordon H. Orians
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Studying Biodiversity on Private Lands

Jodi Hilty
Private lands harbor a great amount of biodiversity, including at least some habitat for 95% of the federally listed species in the United States. It is important to conduct conservation biology research on private lands, but our review of the literature indicates that few conservation-oriented field studies are conducted on private property. Based on our success in obtaining permission to conduct research on 43 land parcels in Sonoma County, California, we developed methods to enhance a conservation biologist's chance of obtaining permission to work on private lands. We provide guidelines for researchers to conduct studies successfully on private land with the goal of improving access, data collection, and relationships with private landowners. We also discuss constraints researchers face, such as designing studies appropriate for working on privately owned parcels. In light of the importance of these lands to biodiversity conservation, greater effort should be made to conduct research on private lands. Resumen: Más de la mitad de la tierra en los Estados Unidos es propiedad privada. Las tierras de propiedad privada albergan una gran cantidad de biodiversidad, incluyendo al menos algunos hábitats para el 95% de las especies incluidas en la lista nacional de especies en peligro de extinción en los Estados Unidos. Es importante llevar a cabo investigación sobre biología de la conservación en tierras privadas, pero nuestra revisión de la literatura indica que existen pocos estudios a campo orientados hacia la conservación en propiedades privadas. En base a nuestro éxito en obtener permisos para llevar a cabo estudios de investigación en 43 parcelas de tierra en el condado de Sonoma, California, desarrollamos métodos para mejorar las posibilidades de los biólogos conservacionistas de obtener permisos para trabajar en tierras privadas. Hemos provisto lineamientos para que los investigadores lleven a cabo estudios exilosos en tierras privadas con el objeto de mejorar el acceso, la recolección de datos y las relaciones con los dueños de tierras privadas. También discutimos las limitantes que los investigadores enfrentan, tales como el diseño de estudios adecuados para trabajar en parcelas de propiedad privada. Dada la importancia de estas tierras para la conservación de la biodiversidad, se debería realizar un esfuerzo mayor para llevar a cabo investigaciones en tierras privadas. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2003
Massimo Pigliucci
Abstract., The idea of genetic assimilation, that environmentally induced phenotypes may become genetically fixed and no longer require the original environmental stimulus, has had varied success through time in evolutionary biology research. Proposed by Waddington in the 1940s, it became an area of active empirical research mostly thanks to the efforts of its inventor and his collaborators. It was then attacked as of minor importance during the "hardening" of the neo-Darwinian synthesis and was relegated to a secondary role for decades. Recently, several papers have appeared, mostly independently of each other, to explore the likelihood of genetic assimilation as a biological phenomenon and its potential importance to our understanding of evolution. In this article we briefly trace the history of the concept and then discuss theoretical models that have newly employed genetic assimilation in a variety of contexts. We propose a typical scenario of evolution of genetic assimilation via an intermediate stage of phenotypic plasticity and present potential examples of the same. We also discuss a conceptual map of current and future lines of research aimed at exploring the actual relevance of genetic assimilation for evolutionary biology. [source]

PERSPECTIVE: Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps

Sonia Vanderhoeven
Abstract In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders' success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general. [source]

A plaidoyer for cutaneous enzymology: our view of some important unanswered questions on the contributions of selected key enzymes to epidermal homeostasis

John M. Wood
Abstract:, This review highlights the importance of enzymology, a field of great neglect in current cutaneous biology research. It was therefore the aim by using selected examples of epidermal enzymes and their action including some open questions to demonstrate the importance of this area. Clearly a thorough understanding of basic knowledge in this field is needed which in turn offers a plethora of innovative research projects for a curious mind. Moreover, in order to gain the closest understanding to the truth instead of generating esoteric results, emphasis is put forward on a holistic view utilizing a combination of modern and sometimes old methods to get the answer. Last but not least the bench work is only useful for the welfare of our patients if we can apply our basic knowledge. [source]

More tools for diatom molecular biology research

Paul G. Roessler
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Experimental and statistical analysis methods for peptide detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

Breeana L. Mitchell
Abstract Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has the potential to make a significant impact in biology research due to its ability to provide information orthogonal to that obtained by traditional techniques such as mass spectrometry (MS). While SERS has been well studied for its use in chemical applications, detailed investigations with biological molecules are less common. In addition, a clear understanding of how methodology and molecular characteristics impact the intensity, the number of peaks, and the signal-to-noise of SERS spectra is largely missing. By varying the concentration and order of addition of the SERS-enhancer salt (LiCl) with colloidal silver, we were able to evaluate the impact of these variables on peptide spectra using a quantitative measure of spectra quality based on the number of peaks and peak intensity. The LiCl concentration and order of addition that produced the best SERS spectra were applied to a panel of synthetic peptides with a range of charges and isoelectric points (pIs) where the pI was directly correlated with higher spectral quality. Those peptides with moderate to high pIs and spectra quality scores were differentiated from each other using the improved method and a hierarchical clustering algorithm. In addition, the same method and algorithm was applied to a set of highly similar phosphorylated peptides, and it was possible to successfully classify the majority of peptides on the basis of species-specific peak differences. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Too hot to handle?

Synchrotron X-ray damage of lipid membranes, mesophases
The call for brighter synchrotron X-radiation sources for use in structural biology research is barely audible as we enter the new millennium. Our brightest sources are already creating havoc when used at design specifications because of radiation damage. The time is long overdue to take stock of where we are and where we wish to go with regards to using existing sources and to designing new ones. The problem of radiation damage is particularly acute in studies involving kinetics and mechanisms where cryo-techniques are not always viable. Accordingly, we need to understand the very nature of radiation damage and to devise means of minimizing it. This is the thrust of the current report as applied to lipid membranes and mesophases. The experiments were performed at the most brilliant beamlines at CHESS, the APS and the ESRF. Two very different types of radiation damage are reported here. One involves a dramatic phase transformation and the other a disordering of lamellar stacking. How beam energy and dose rate affect damage is also discussed. The work highlights the free-radical-mediated nature of the damage process and the need for additional studies if the most efficient use is to be made of an important resource, synchrotron radiation. [source]

Co-culture in cartilage tissue engineering

Jeanine Hendriks
Abstract For biotechnological research in vitro in general and tissue engineering specifically, it is essential to mimic the natural conditions of the cellular environment as much as possible. In choosing a model system for in vitro experiments, the investigator always has to balance between being able to observe, measure or manipulate cell behaviour and copying the in situ environment of that cell. Most tissues in the body consist of more than one cell type. The organization of the cells in the tissue is essential for the tissue's normal development, homeostasis and repair reaction. In a co-culture system, two or more cell types brought together in the same culture environment very likely interact and communicate. Co-culture has proved to be a powerful in vitro tool in unravelling the importance of cellular interactions during normal physiology, homeostasis, repair and regeneration. The first co-culture studies focused mainly on the influence of cellular interactions on oocytes maturation to a pre-implantation blastocyst. Therefore, a brief overview of these studies is given here. Later on in the history of co-culture studies, it was applied to study cell,cell communication, after which, almost immediately as the field of tissue engineering was recognized, it was introduced in tissue engineering to study cellular interactions and their influence on tissue formation. This review discusses the introduction and applications of co-culture systems in cell biology research, with the emphasis on tissue engineering and its possible application for studying cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Fish proteome analysis: Model organisms and non-sequenced species

Ignasi Forné
Abstract In the last decade, proteomic technologies have been increasingly used in fish biology research. Proteomics has been applied primarily to investigate the physiology, development biology and the impact of contaminants in fish model organisms, such as zebrafish (Danio rerio), as well as in some commercial species produced in aquaculture, mainly salmonids and cyprinids. However, the lack of previous genetic information on most fish species has been a major drawback for a more general application of the different proteomic technologies currently available. Also, many teleosts of interest in biological research and with potential application in aquaculture hold unique physiological characteristics that cannot be directly addressed from the study of small laboratory fish models. This review describes proteomic approaches that have been used to investigate diverse biological questions in model and non-model fish species. We will also evaluate the current possibilities to integrate fish proteomics with other "omic" approaches, as well as with additional complementary techniques, in order to address the future challenges in fish biology research. [source]

An accessible two-dimensional solution nuclear magnetic resonance experiment on human ubiquitin,

David Rovnyak
Abstract Solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an invaluable tool in structural and molecular biology research, but may be underutilized in undergraduate laboratories because instrumentation for performing structural studies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions is not yet widely available for use in undergraduate laboratories. We have implemented an experiment that is ideal for more commonly available 4.8,7.0 Tesla, double-channel NMR instruments that would not usually be used for biomolecular NMR work. We analyzed a commercially available, 15N-enriched human ubiquitin sample with a two-dimensional correlation experiment using indirect 1H evolution and direct 15N detection, which produced spectra with high resolution on a spectrometer operating at 7.0 Tesla (300 MHz 1H resonance frequency). The simplicity of the experiment makes it possible to be configured by undergraduate students with minimal supervision from the instructor. Students gain experience in acquiring multidimensional biomolecular NMR experiments, confirm that ubiquitin is stably folded, and observe the correspondence between specific signals and individual amino acids in ubiquitin. [source]

Simaomicin ,, a polycyclic xanthone, induces G1 arrest with suppression of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
Yukio Koizumi
Recent progress in cancer biology research has shown that abnormal proliferation in tumor cells can be attributed to aberrations in cell cycle regulation, especially in G1 phase. During the course of searching for microbial metabolites that affect cell cycle distribution, we have found that simaomicin ,, a polycyclic xanthone antibiotic, arrests the cell cycle at G1 phase. Treatment of T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells with 3 nM simaomicin , induced an increase in the number of cells in G1 and a decrease in those in G2,M phase. Cell cycle aberrations induced by simaomicin , were also detected in colon adenocarcinoma HCT15 cells. Simaomicin , had antiproliferative activities in various tumor cell lines with 50% inhibitory concentration values in the range of 0.3,19 nM. Furthermore, simaomicin , induced an increase in cellular caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation, indicating that simaomicin , promotes apoptosis. The retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation status of simaomicin ,-treated cell lysate was lower than that of control cells, suggesting that the target molecule of simaomicin , is in a pathway upstream of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. In the course of evaluating polycyclic xanthone antibiotics structurally related to simaomicin ,, we also found that cervinomycin A1 stimulated accumulation of treated cells in G1 phase. These results indicate that the polycyclic xanthones, including simaomicin , and cervinomycin A1, may be candidate cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 322,326) [source]