Biology Concepts (biology + concept)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Thyroid tumor marker genomics and proteomics: Diagnostic and clinical implications

Angelo Carpi
Two systems biology concepts, genomics and proteomics, are highlighted in this review. These techniques are implemented to optimize the use of thyroid tumor markers (TTM). Tissue microarray studies can produce genetic maps and proteomics, patterns of protein expression of TTM derived from preoperative biopsies and specimens. For instance, papillary and medullary thyroid cancers harbor RAS, RET, and BRAF genetic mutations. Follicular thyroid cancers harbor translocations and fusions of certain genes (PAX 8 and PPAR-gamma). Proteomic analysis from various tissue sources can provide useful information regarding the overall state of a thyroid cancer cell. Understanding the molecular events related to these genetic and protein alterations can potentially clarify thyroid cancer pathogenesis and guide appropriate molecular targeted therapies. However, despite the realization that these emerging technologies hold great promise, there are still significant obstacles to the routine use of TTM. These include equivocal thyroid nodule tissue morphologic interpretations, inadequate standardization of methods, and monetary costs. Interpretative shortcomings are frequently due to the relative scarcity of cellular material from fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimens. This can be rectified with large needle aspiration biopsy (LNAB) techniques and is exemplified by the favorable performance of galectin-3 determinations on LNAB specimens. J. Cell. Physiol. 224: 612,619, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Use of Extant Non-Indigenous Tortoises as a Restoration Tool to Replace Extinct Ecosystem Engineers

Christine J. Griffiths
We argue that the introduction of non-native extant tortoises as ecological replacements for extinct giant tortoises is a realistic restoration management scheme, which is easy to implement. We discuss how the recent extinctions of endemic giant Cylindraspis tortoises on the Mascarene Islands have left a legacy of ecosystem dysfunction threatening the remnants of native biota, focusing on the island of Mauritius because this is where most has been inferred about plant,tortoise interactions. There is a pressing need to restore and preserve several Mauritian habitats and plant communities that suffer from ecosystem dysfunction. We discuss ongoing restoration efforts on the Mauritian offshore Round Island, which provide a case study highlighting how tortoise substitutes are being used in an experimental and hypothesis-driven conservation and restoration project. The immediate conservation concern was to prevent the extinction and further degradation of Round Island's threatened flora and fauna. In the long term, the introduction of tortoises to Round Island will lead to valuable management and restoration insights for subsequent larger-scale mainland restoration projects. This case study further highlights the feasibility, versatility and low-risk nature of using tortoises in restoration programs, with particular reference to their introduction to island ecosystems. Overall, the use of extant tortoises as replacements for extinct ones is a good example of how conservation and restoration biology concepts applied at a smaller scale can be microcosms for more grandiose schemes and addresses more immediate conservation priorities than large-scale ecosystem rewilding projects. [source]

Modeling biochemical processes based on systems biology concepts

Article first published online: 21 NOV 200
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

A dynamic model for diauxic growth, overflow metabolism, and AI-2-mediated cell,cell communication of Salmonella Typhimurium based on systems biology concepts

Astrid M. Cappuyns
Abstract The last decades, the research on bacterial cell,cell communication or quorum sensing has been quite intense. Quorum sensing allows bacteria to coordinate their behavior and to act as one entity. Quorum sensing controls microbiological functions of medical, agricultural and industrial importance and a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which the signaling occurs, offers possibilities for new applications. In this article a dynamic model for diauxic growth, overflow metabolism and AI-2-mediated cell,cell communication of Salmonella Typhimurium is presented. The growth, and the production and uptake of the AI-2 signaling molecule of S. Typhimurium are investigated in a controlled environment (bioreactor). In a first stage a model is developed to describe diauxic growth and overflow metabolism. This model is extended in a second stage to describe AI-2 dynamics of S. Typhimurium in relation to the growth kinetics and biomass concentration. It is illustrated how this model can be employed to test hypotheses concerning AI-2 dynamics on the basis of macroscopic data. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 280,293. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]