Biological Effects (biological + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Biological Effects

  • of biological effects
  • variety of biological effects

  • Selected Abstracts

    Review of: Soil Analysis in Forensic Taphonomy: Chemical and Biological Effects of Buried Human Remains

    Arpad A. Vass Ph.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Chemistry And Biological Effects Of Dietary Phenolic Compounds: Relevance To Cardiovascular Disease

    Lincoln W Morton
    SUMMARY 1. There has been considerable recent interest in the possibility that increased intake of dietary anti-oxidants may protect against cardiovascular disease. This is partly due to the knowledge that oxidative events in vivo may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. 2. While dietary anti-oxidants, such as vitamins E and C, have received considerable attention in this regard, relatively little is known about a similar anti-oxidant role for plant-derived polyphenolic compounds, such as the flavonoids and phenolic acids. A review of the distribution, bioavailability and biological activity of these compounds suggests that they may have a physiological role as anti-oxidants. 3. Human trials on the anti-oxidant effects of beverages rich in polyphenolics, such as red wine, fruit juice or tea, have been limited and results are, at present, inconclusive. This is due, in part, to poor methodologies available to measure oxidative damage in vivo. 4. There is a sound rationale for considering polyphenolics as important contributors to the dietary anti-oxidant intake derived from fruits and vegetables. However, continuing research is needed using appropriate biomarkers of oxidant damage in vivo before these compounds can be conclusively considered as dietary anti-oxidants with nutritional benefit. [source]

    Copper toxicity in relation to surface water-dissolved organic matter: Biological effects to Daphnia magna

    Kees J.M. Kramer
    Abstract Water quality standards for copper are usually stated in total element concentrations. It is known, however, that a major part of the copper can be bound in complexes that are biologically not available. Natural organic matter, such as humic and fulvic acids, are strong complexing agents that may affect the bioavailable copper (Cu2+) concentration. The aim of this study was to quantify the relation between the concentration of dissolved natural organic matter and free Cu2+ in surface waters, and the biological effect, as measured in a standardized ecotoxicological test (48 h-median effective concentration [EC50] Daphnia magna, mobility). Six typical Dutch surface waters and an artificial water, ranging from 0.1 to 22 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC), were collected and analyzed quarterly. Chemical speciation modeling was used as supporting evidence to assess bioavailability. The results show clear evidence of a linear relation between the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (in milligrams DOC/L) and the ecotoxicological effect (as effect concentration, EC50, expressed as micrograms Cu/L): 48-h EC50 (Daphnia, mobility) = 17.2 × DOC + 30.2 (r2 = 0.80, n = 22). Except for a brook with atypical water quality characteristics, no differences were observed among water type or season. When ultraviolet (UV)-absorption (380 nm) was used to characterize the dissolved organic carbon, a linear correlation was found as well. The importance of the free copper concentration was demonstrated by speciation calculations: In humic-rich waters the free Cu2+ concentration was estimated at ,10,11 M, whereas in medium to low dissolved organic carbon waters the [Cu2+] was ,10,10 M. Speciation calculations performed for copper concentrations at the effective concentration level (where the biological effect is considered the same) resulted in very similar free copper concentrations (,10,8 M Cu) in these surface waters with different characteristics. These observations consistently show that the presence of organic matter decreases the bioavailability, uptake, and ecotoxicity of copper in the aquatic environment. It demonstrates that the DOC content must be included in site-specific environmental risk assessment for trace metals (at least for copper). It is the quantification of the effects described that allows policy makers to review the criteria for copper in surface waters. [source]

    Oxidative stress biomarkers in bivalves transplanted to the Guadalquivir estuary after Aznalcóllar spill

    Antonio Romero-Ruiz
    Abstract Biological effects of metals were studied in clams (Scrobicularia plana) transplanted to Guadalquivir estuary (Spain) at several times after the spill of toxic metals from Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (southwest Spain) (April 1998) using biochemical biomarkers responsive to reactive oxygen species. Significant As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Pb uptake was found in clams living for seven months at the estuary (from July 1999). Increased activity of antioxidant (catalase, glucose-6-phosphate, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) and glutathione-related (glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I and II) enzymes was also found after short exposures; the levels of malondialdehyde and metallothionein increased also, particularly with long exposures. Clams living four weeks at the estuary (from March 2000) but not at a reference site also accumulated metals. The higher malondialdehyde and lower reduced-glutathione levels and the more oxidized glutathione status confirmed the oxidative stress of clams living at the estuary, while no marked increase of antioxidant activities was found this time. Lower metal availability along the second transplant could explain the limited responses in this shorter experiment. Although the status of Guadalquivir estuary has recovered since Aznalcóllar spill, continuous monitoring is needed to confirm its progress and to be alert to possible deterioration after heavy rains. [source]

    Less-oxidative hemodialysis solution rendered by cathode-side application of electrolyzed water

    Masaaki NAKAYAMA
    Abstract Electrolyzed water (EW) generated on the cathode side reportedly displays anti-oxidative properties, and application of EW to hemodialysis (HD) systems supposedly suppresses oxidative markers in patients on HD. However, most of the chemical properties and biological effects of such solutions remain unclear. This study aimed to examine those issues to clarify the scientific background for the clinical use of EW solution. Reverse osmosis water comprising EW from the cathode side (e-RO) was prepared and used to process a test HD solution (e-HD). Chemical and biological properties of these solutions were compared with controls. Redox properties were examined by chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-H2O2 system. Biological effects of e-RO on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were tested with respect to the cellular protection against methylglyoxal, and with respect to the preservation of cellular function as to radical generation. Control HD solution presented the highest CL, followed by e-HD, control RO, suggesting a lower oxidative capacity for EW-based solutions. Increased levels of dissolved hydrogen were characteristic of e-RO and e-HD. Application of e-RO tended to be associated with less injury of PMNs by methylglyoxal, and with significantly higher levels of radical generation compared with the control. Compared with control HD, e-RO-based HD solution displays less-oxidative capacity in chemical terms, and may at least partly facilitate preservation of PMN viability. These results appear to offer a scientific basis for supporting the clinical challenge of applying this technology to HD treatment. [source]

    Cimetidine inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced cell signaling

    Tatsuya Fujikawa
    Abstract Background:, Cimetidine, a histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist, has been demonstrated to have anticancer effects on colorectal cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. In the current study, we clarified that cimetidine inhibits both epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Method:, HCC cell lines (Hep3B, HLF, SK-Hep-1, JHH-2, PLC/PRF/5 and HLE) were used and cell proliferation was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Cell migration was measured by in vitro cell migration assay. Biological effects of cimetidine were assessed with human EGF receptor (EGFR)-expressing mouse fibroblast cells (NR6-WT). The autophosphorylation of EGFR and the activation of other downstream effectors were analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. The concentration of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) was measured by competitive enzyme immunoassay. Results:, Cimetidine inhibited both EGF-induced cell proliferation and migration in Hep3B, HLF, SK-Hep-1 and JHH-2, while cimetidine did not affect EGF-induced cell proliferation and migration in PLC/PRF/5 and HLE. Cimetidine was revealed to disrupt the EGF-induced autophosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream effectors, mitogen activated protein kinases and phospholipase C-,. To define the molecular basis of this negative regulation, we identified that cimetidine significantly decreased intracellular cAMP levels and that decrement of cAMP inhibited autophosphorylation of EGFR. The cell permeable cAMP analog, CPT-cAMPS reversed the cimetidine-induced inhibition of EGF-induced cell proliferation and cell migration by restoring autophosphorylation of EGFR. Conclusion:, Cimetidine inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation and migration in HCC cell lines by decreasing the concentration of intracellular cAMP levels. Cimetidine may be a candidate chemopreventive agent for HCC. [source]

    Review: Biological effects of organic arsenic compounds in seafood,

    Teruaki Sakurai
    Abstract This review describes the results of our recent experiments concerning the in vitro biological effects of water-soluble organic arsenic compounds contained in seafood in murine immune effector cells using synthetic pure materials. A dimethyl organic arsenic compound in seaweed, viz. an arsenosugar, was weakly cytotoxic in murine alveolar macrophages during a 72,h incubation (50% lethal concentration in vitro, LC50,=,8,mmol,dm,3); conversely, it increased the cell viability of peritoneal macrophages at an optimal dose of 5,mmol,dm,3. Trimethyl arsenic compounds in marine animals, arsenocholine and arsenobetaine, were less toxic in murine splenocytes, thymocytes, Peyer's patch lymphocytes, peritoneal macrophages and alveolar macrophages in vitro, even over 10,mmol,dm,3. Interestingly, they significantly increased the cell viability of immature bone marrow cells at doses over 100,µmol dm,3, and induced the maturation of bone marrow cells especially into granulocytes. The tetramethyl arsenic compound, tetramethylarsonium hydroxide, isolated from some lower marine animals had no in vitro cytolethality on murine immune effector cells. Taken together, organic arsenic compounds in seafood are not very toxic in living systems. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Biological effects of a nano red elemental selenium

    BIOFACTORS, Issue 1 2001
    Jin-Song Zhang
    A novel selenium form, nano red elemental selenium (Nano-Se) was prepared by adding bovine serum albumin to the redox system of selenite and glutathione. Nano-Se has a 7-fold lower acute toxicity than sodium selenite in mice (LD50 113 and 15 mg Se/kg body weight respectively). In Se-deficient rat, both Nano-Se and selenite can increase tissue selenium and GPx activity. The biological activities of Nano-Se and selenite were compared in terms of cell proliferation, enzyme induction and protection against free racial-mediated damage in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Nano-Se and selenite are similarly cell growth inhibited and stimulated synthesis of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR). When HepG2 cells were co-treated with selenium and glutathione, Nano-Se showed less pro-oxidative effects than selenite, as measured by cell growth. These results demonstrate that Nano-Se has a similar bioavailability in the rat and antioxidant effects on cells. [source]

    Sex-specific and left-right asymmetric expression pattern of Bmp7 in the gonad of normal and sex-reversed chicken embryos

    Anshin Hoshino
    A genetic switch determines whether the indifferent gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. In adult females of many avian species, the left ovary is functional while the right one regresses. In the embryo, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) mediate biological effects in many organ developments but their roles in avian sex determination and gonadal differentiation remains largely unknown. Here, we report the sex-specific and left-right (L-R) asymmetric expression pattern of Bmp7 in the chicken gonadogenesis. Bmp7 was L-R asymmetrically expressed at the beginning of genital ridge formation. After sexual differentiation occurred, sex-specific expression pattern of Bmp7 was observed in the ovary mesenchyme. In addition, ovary-specific Bmp7 expression was reduced in experimentally induced female-to-male reversal using the aromatase inhibitor (AI). These dynamic changes of expression pattern of Bmp7 in the gonad with or without AI treatment suggest that BMP may play roles in determination of L-R asymmetric development and sex-dependent differentiation in the avian gonadogenesis. [source]

    Cardiovascular effects of the thiazolidinediones

    Rehan Qayyum
    Abstract Thiazolidinediones, used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2, modulate gene expression by binding to nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Peroxisome proliferator,activated receptor-gamma is expressed in several tissues, therefore, thiazolidinediones have biological effects on multiple organ systems. Here, we describe evidence that thiazolidinediones have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system independent of their antidiabetic effect. Studies in animals have clearly shown that thiazolidinediones decrease blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, development of atherosclerotic lesions, and protect myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Although relatively few studies in humans have been reported, the preponderance of available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of thiazolidinediones. Thus, by modulating gene expression, thiazolidinediones may provide a novel method for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) in biology and pathology

    Juris J. Meier
    Abstract Post-translational proteolytic processing of the preproglucagon gene in the gut results in the formation of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Owing to its glucose-dependent insulinotropic effect, this hormone was postulated to primarily act as an incretin, i.e. to augment insulin secretion after oral glucose or meal ingestion. In addition, GLP-1 decelerates gastric emptying and suppresses glucagon secretion. Under physiological conditions, GLP-1 acts as a part of the ,ileal brake', meaning that is slows the transition of nutrients into the distal gut. Animal studies suggest a role for GLP-1 in the development and growth of the endocrine pancreas. In light of its multiple actions throughout the body, different therapeutic applications of GLP-1 are possible. Promising results have been obtained with GLP-1 in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but its potential to reduce appetite and food intake may also allow its use for the treatment of obesity. While rapid in vivo degradation of GLP-1 has yet prevented its broad clinical use, different pharmacological approaches aiming to extend the in vivo half-life of GLP-1 or to inhibit its inactivation are currently being evaluated. Therefore, antidiabetic treatment based on GLP-1 may become available within the next years. This review will summarize the biological effects of GLP-1, characterize its role in human biology and pathology, and discuss potential clinical applications as well as current clinical studies. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Vascular endothelial growth factor and diabetic retinopathy: pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment perspectives

    Ruth B. Caldwell
    Abstract Retinal neovascularization and macular edema are central features of diabetic retinopathy, the major cause of blindness in the developed world. Current treatments are limited in their efficacy and are associated with significant adverse effects. Characterization of the molecular and cellular processes involved in vascular growth and permeability has led to the recognition that the angiogenic growth factor and vascular permeability factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the retinal microvascular complications of diabetes. Therefore, VEGF represents an exciting target for therapeutic intervention in diabetic retinopathy. This review highlights the current understanding of the mechanisms that regulate VEGF gene expression and mediate its biological effects and how these processes may become altered during diabetes. The cellular and molecular alterations that characterize experimental models of diabetes are considered in relation to the influence of high glucose-mediated oxidative stress on VEGF expression and on the mechanisms of VEGF's actions under hyperglycemic induction. Finally, potential therapeutic strategies for preventing VEGF overexpression or blocking its pathological effects in the diabetic retina are considered. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Beneficial effects of C-peptide on incipient nephropathy and neuropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2000
    B. -L.
    Summary Aims Recent studies have indicated that proinsulin C-peptide shows specific binding to cell membrane binding sites and may exert biological effects when administered to patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to determine if combined treatment with C-peptide and insulin might reduce the level of microalbuminuria in patients with Type 1 diabetes and incipient nephropathy. Methods Twenty-one normotensive patients with microalbuminuria were studied for 6 months in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. The patients received s.c. injections of either human C-peptide (600 nmol/24 h) or placebo plus their regular insulin regimen for 3 months. Results Glycaemic control improved slightly during the study and to a similar extent in both treatment groups. Blood pressure was unaltered throughout the study. During the C-peptide treatment period, urinary albumin excretion decreased progressively on average from 58 ,g/min (basal) to 34 ,g/min (3 months, P < 0.01) and it tended to increase, but not significantly so, during the placebo period. The difference between the two treatment periods was statistically significant (P < 0.01). In the 12 patients with signs of autonomic neuropathy prior to the study, respiratory heart rate variability increased by 21 ± 9% (P < 0.05) during treatment with C-peptide but was unaltered during placebo. Thermal thresholds were significantly improved during C-peptide treatment in comparison to placebo (n = 6, P < 0.05). Conclusion These results indicate that combined treatment with C-peptide and insulin for 3 months may improve renal function by diminishing urinary albumin excretion and ameliorate autonomic and sensory nerve dysfunction in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. [source]

    Drug design: hiding in full view

    Norman S. Radin
    Abstract Compounds that can produce potent biological effects in cells encompass a variety of structural motifs. Many of these compounds share a structural feature that has rarely been noted. It is an allylic cluster of atoms, a 3-carbon chain with a double bond between two of the atoms and an oxygen atom at the other end. The oxygen can be in a hydroxyl group, or in an ether or ketal or ester linkage, or simply a carbonyl form. In the latter case, the linkage is an allylic ketone (ene-one) structure. Nitrogen is often seen in equivalent forms. Inclusion of at least one allylic moiety appears to be able to turn a modestly active or inert compound into an effective drug or toxin. Some compounds lack the allylic moiety but develop one by enzymatic action, usually via cytochrome P-450 enzymes. These metabolites probably represent the active drug forms. The above concepts seem to be radically simplistic and improbable, but the evidence supporting them and the explanations for the biological activities are hidden "in plain view." Comparisons with the pleiotropic activities of the allylic sphingolipid, ceramide, indicate that many allylic drugs operate by controlling the state of protein phosphorylation, by activating proteases, by generating reactive oxygen species, by slowing mitochondrial electron transport, or by lowering cellular glutathione concentrations. Drug Dev Res 69:15,25, 2008 © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The role of cyclodextrins in chiral capillary electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 8 2008
    Zoltįn Juvancz Dr.
    Abstract The members of the enantiomeric pairs frequently show rather different biological effects, so their chiral selective synthesis, pharmacological studies and analysis are necessary. CE has unique advantages in chiral analysis. The most frequently used chiral selectors are CDs in this field. This paper gives a short view on the advantages on CE in direct chiral separations, emphasizing the role of CDs. The reason for the broad selectivity spectra of CDs is discussed in detail. The physical background of chiral selective separations is briefly shown in CE. Their interaction mechanisms are shortly defined. The general trend of their use is statistically evaluated. Most frequently used CDs and CD derivatives are characterized. Advantages of ionizable CDs and single-isomer derivatives are shown. The general trend of their use is established. [source]

    Assessment of protein-incorporated arginine methylation in biological specimens by CZE UV-detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 23 2007
    Angelo Zinellu Dr.
    Abstract Protein arginine methyltransferases methylate post-translationally arginine residues in proteins to synthesize monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), or symmetric dimethylarginine. Protein arginine methylation is involved in the regulation of signal transduction, RNA export, and cell proliferation. Moreover, upon proteolysis, arginines are released into the cytosol in which they exert important biological effects. Both MMA and ADMA are inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and especially elevated levels of ADMA are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Quantification of these analytes is commonly performed by HPLC after sample cleanup and derivatization. We propose a CE method in which these steps have been avoided and the procedure for sample preparation has been simplified. After acidic hydrolysis of proteins, samples were dried, resuspended in water, and directly injected in CE. A baseline separation of analytes was reached in a 60 cm×75,,m id uncoated silica capillary, by using a Tris-phosphate run buffer at pH,2.15. This method allows an accurate assessment of protein arginine methylation degree in different biological samples such as whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, cultured cells, and tissue. Moreover, its good sensitivity permits to evaluate the methylation of a single protein type after the opportune purification steps. A method applicability concerns both clinical laboratories, where the evaluation of blood protein from numerous samples could be rapidly performed, and research laboratories where the factors affecting the arginine protein methylation degree could be easily studied. [source]

    Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A in relation to biomarkers of sensitivity and effect and endocrine-related health effects

    Mihi Yang
    Abstract The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health is not yet clear because of difficulties in ascertaining their biological effects. In the present study, we evaluated exposure to the EDC, bisphenol A (BPA), in 172 Koreans in relation to biomarkers of susceptibility and effect. The subjects completed questionnaires, which documented occupation, education, lifestyle factors, potential sources of BPA-exposure, and the occurrence of self-diagnosed endocrine disorders. None of the subjects were occupationallay exposed to BPA; however, urinary levels of conjugated BPA, determined by HPLC/FD, ranged from 0.03,62.4 ,g/l (median, 7.86). The frequencies of potential susceptibility biomarkers, the UGT1A6-Arg184Ser and the SULT1A1- Arg213His polymorphisms, were not associated with urinary BPA levels, either as single genes or in combination. Indirect effects of BPA exposure on the susceptibility to mutagens were evaluated by comparing urinary BPA concentrations with MNNG-induced sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in lymphocytes cultured from the subjects. BPA exposure showed marginal or significant associations with theSCEs induced by the low doses of MNNG (0,0.4 mM). However, there was no overall association between urinary BPA levels and MNNG-induced frequency at doses ranging from 0.2,0.6 mM. Finally, we did not detect an association between urinary BPA concentration and endocrine-related disorders. Even though we were unable to find a strong association between BPA exposure and a biological response, possibly because of the limited number of subjects, we observed that most of the subjects were exposed to BPA. Therefore, continuous biological monitoring of BPA is a prudent measure to prevent possible BPA-related health risks. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of the E. coli fpg protein in CHO cells lowers endogenous oxypurine clustered damage levels and decreases accumulation of endogenous Hprt mutations,

    Sunirmal Paul
    Abstract Endogenous DNA damage clusters,two or more oxidized bases, abasic sites, or strand breaks within about 20 base pairs on opposing strands,can accumulate in unirradiated mammalian cells, and may be significant origins of spontaneous detrimental biological effects. Factors determining the levels of such endogenous clusters are largely unknown. To determine if cellular repair genotype can affect endogenous cluster levels in mammalian cells, the authors examined cluster levels, growth rates, and mutant frequencies in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the Escherichia coli glycosylase fpg protein, whose principal substrates are oxidized purines. In cells expressing high levels of fpg protein, the levels of oxypurine clustered damages were decreased while those of oxypyrimidine clusters and abasic clusters were unchanged. Furthermore, in these cells, the growth rates were increased and the level of spontaneous background mutants in the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene was decreased. These results suggest that endogenous clusters are potentially detrimental DNA damages, and that their levels,as well as the detrimental consequences of their presence,can be effectively reduced by increased cellular activity of specific DNA repair proteins. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Aroclor 1254 alters morphology, survival, and gene expression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Anna M. Jelaso
    Abstract PCBs are persistent environmental contaminants that cause a variety of adverse health effects in wildlife and humans. This article describes the use of signature gene expression patterns that link increased PCB exposure with progressive, adverse biological effects. Developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles of two age classes were exposed to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 for 2 days. Real-time PCR was used to quantitate mRNA expression for 11 physiologically relevant, potential bioindicator genes. Younger tadpoles (5 days postfertilization) were resistant to Aroclor 1254 and showed few changes in gross morphology, swimming behavior, survival, or gene expression. Older tadpoles (11 days postfertilization) were more susceptible to Aroclor 1254. Exposure to 25 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254 caused alterations in gross morphology and swimming behavior and statistically significant decreases in survival. These tadpoles showed statistically significant decreases in gene expression for 9 out of the 11 genes measured. Tadpoles exposed to 10 ppm showed incipient health changes but had gene expression profiles similar to the tadpoles treated with higher doses of Aroclor 1254. Tadpoles exposed to 1 ppm did not exhibit any observable adverse health effects, yet statistically significant decreases in gene expression occurred in these tadpoles (4 out of 11 genes). After prolonged exposure, tadpoles exposed to 1 and 10 ppm Aroclor 1254 exhibited health effects similar to those exposed to higher concentrations. Therefore, changes in expression of specific genes may serve not only as molecular bioindicators of Aroclor 1254 exposure but also as predictors of impending adverse health effects. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 40:24,35, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Use of Caged Nucella Lapillus and Crassostrea Gigas to Monitor Tributyltin-Induced Bioeffects in Irish Coastal Waters,

    Michelle Giltrap
    Abstract Caging studies have been previously reported to be useful for providing valuable information on biological effects of mollusks over short periods of time where resident species are absent. The degree of imposex in caged dog whelk (Nucella lapillus), was measured using the vas deferens sequence index (VSDI) and the Relative Penis Size Index (RPSI) and the extent of shell thickening in caged Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was investigated at t = 0 and t = 18 weeks. Nucella lapillus, when provided with mussels as a food source at the control site at Omey Island on the west Irish coast, did not demonstrate imposex features, whereas those transplanted to port areas did. Dunmore East exhibited the highest level of imposex (3.25 VDSI and 2.37 RPSI). Shell thickening was evident in C. gigas transplanted to Dunmore East, with low effects evident at the control location, Omey Island, and Dublin Bay at t = 18 weeks. Dry weight whole-body concentrations of organotins were most elevated in all species held at Dunmore East compared with other locations. Greatest ,15N and ,13C enrichment was observed within the tissues of the predatory N. lapillus in all three test sites. Increased assimilation in the Dublin Bay oysters might have been influenced by the presence of more nutrients at this location. Surficial sediment organotin levels were most elevated in the Dunmore East <2-mm fraction (22,707 ,g tributyltin/kg dry weight), whereas low organotin levels were determined from Dublin and Omey Island sediments. The valuable application of cost-effective caging techniques to deliver integrated biological effects and chemical measurements in the absence of resident gastropod populations in potential organotin/tributyltin hotspot locations is discussed. [source]

    Approaches for linking whole-body fish tissue residues of mercury or DDT to biological effects thresholds

    Nancy Beckvar
    Abstract A variety of methods have been used by numerous investigators attempting to link tissue concentrations with observed adverse biological effects. This paper is the first to evaluate in a systematic way different approaches for deriving protective (i.e., unlikely to have adverse effects) tissue residue-effect concentrations in fish using the same datasets. Guidelines for screening papers and a set of decision rules were formulated to provide guidance on selecting studies and obtaining data in a consistent manner. Paired no-effect (NER) and low-effect (LER) whole-body residue concentrations in fish were identified for mercury and DDT from the published literature. Four analytical approaches of increasing complexity were evaluated for deriving protective tissue residues. The four methods were: Simple ranking, empirical percentile, tissue threshold-effect level (t-TEL), and cumulative distribution function (CDF). The CDF approach did not yield reasonable tissue residue thresholds based on comparisons to synoptic control concentrations. Of the four methods evaluated, the t-TEL approach best represented the underlying data. A whole-body mercury t-TEL of 0.2 mg/kg wet weight, based largely on sublethal endpoints (growth, reproduction, development, behavior), was calculated to be protective of juvenile and adult fish. For DDT, protective whole-body concentrations of 0.6 mg/kg wet weight in juvenile and adult fish, and 0.7 mg/kg wet weight for early life-stage fish were calculated. However, these DDT concentrations are considered provisional for reasons discussed in this paper (e.g., paucity of sublethal studies). [source]

    Interactions between metabolism of trace metals and xenobiotic agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii: Environmental perspectives

    Francesco Regoli
    Abstract Although Antarctica is a pristine environment, organisms are challenged with contaminants either released locally or transported from industrialized regions through atmospheric circulation and marine food webs. Organisms from Terra Nova Bay also are exposed to a natural enrichment of cadmium, but to our knowledge, whether such environmental conditions influence biological responses to anthropogenic pollutants has never been considered. In the present study, the Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii) was exposed to model chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene), persistent organic pollutants (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin [TCDD]), cadmium, and a combination of cadmium and TCDD. Analyzed parameters included chemical bioaccumulation, activity, and levels of biotransformation enzymes (cytochrome P4501A); metallothioneins and the efficiency of the antioxidant system measured as individual defenses (catalase, glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione S -transferases, and glutathione peroxidases); and total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Reciprocal interactions between metabolism of inorganic and organic pollutants were demonstrated. Dioxin enhanced the accumulation of cadmium, probably stored within proliferating endoplasmic reticulum, and cadmium suppressed the inducibility of cytochrome P4501A, allowing us to hypothesize a posttranscriptional mechanism as the depletion of heme group availability. Clear evidence of oxidative perturbation was provided by the inhibition of antioxidants and enhanced sensitivity to oxyradical toxicity in fish exposed to organic chemicals. Exposure to cadmium revealed counteracting responses of glutathione metabolism; however, these responses did not prevent a certain loss of antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals. The pattern of antioxidant responses exhibited by fish coexposed to cadmium and TCDD was more similar to that observed for cadmium than to that observed for TCDD. The overall results suggest that elevated natural levels of cadmium in Antarctic organisms from Terra Nova Bay can limit biotransformation capability of polycyclic (halogenated) hydrocarbons, thus influencing the bioaccumulation and biological effects of these chemicals in key sentinel species. [source]

    Estrogenicity in bile of juvenile rainbow trout as measure of exposure and potential effects of endocrine disruptors

    Ann-Sofie Allard
    Abstract Estrogenicity in the bile of juvenile rainbow trout exposed to effluents from municipal sewage treatment plants and various industries was assayed by using a recombinant yeast strain containing the human estrogen receptor , gene. Estrogenicity in bile also was measured after deconjugation of steroids to provide an estimate of the exposure and as an endpoint for potential effects on the organism. In unexposed fish or fish exposed for three weeks at control localities, 0.5 to 9 ng of estradiol equivalents (EEq) were found per gram of bile (ng EEq/g bile). Fish exposed for three weeks in cages placed in the receiving waters near outlets of municipal effluent had an average activity of 26 ng EEq/g bile. Fish exposed to undiluted sewage water in aquaria had a bile estrogenicity of 51 to 87,000 ng EEq/g bile. Unconjugated estrogens contributed only 8% or less to the estrogenicity in bile of fish exposed to municipal effluents. Municipal sewage effluents were more estrogenic than the industrial effluents that were investigated. Estrogenicity in bile was compared to that in extracts of wastewater by using the same receptor assay, and to vitellogenin induction in the plasma of the same fish. Bile estrogenicity proved to be a useful and sensitive (internal) measure of exposure and indicated its potential for the display of biological effects as a complement or replacement of more laborious assays. [source]

    Subchronic exposure of BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains of Mus musculus to the radioactive environment of the Chornobyl, Ukraine exclusion zone

    Brenda E. Rodgers
    Abstract Environmental contamination resulting from the Chornobyl, Ukraine, disaster offers a unique opportunity to examine the in vivo biological effects of chronic, low-dose exposure to radiation. Laboratory studies of acute exposure to ionizing radiation have been used to estimate risk and potential human health effects by the extrapolation of laboratory data to situations of low-dose environmental radiation exposure. Few studies, however, have explored the biological consequences of low-dose exposure via in situ environmental radiation in a sentinel species. In the present study, laboratory strains of Mus musculus (BALB/c and 57BL/ 6) were placed in environmental enclosures in the Red Forest region of the Chornobyl exclusion zone. Blood samples were obtained every 10 d, and the micronucleus (MN) test was employed to assess the potential for cytogenetic damage from exposure to Chornobyl radiation. Radionuclide uptake was monitored throughout the study, and dose was estimated for each individual as well as for their offspring. Total dose for the mice experimentally exposed to this environment averaged 1162 mGy for BALB/c (30 d) and 1629 mGy for C57BL/6 (40 d). A higher MN frequency for both strains was observed at day 10, although this change was only statistically significant in the C57BL/6 mice (,23 = 13.41, p = 0.003). Subsequent samples from C57BL/6 resulted in values at or less than the initial frequencies. In BALB/c mice, an increase in MN was also evident at day 30 (,22 = 10.38, p = 0.006). The experimental design employed here allows for the incorporation of traditional laboratory strains, as well as transgenic strains of Mus, as sentinels of environmental radiation contamination. [source]

    Endothelin receptor selectivity in chronic kidney disease: rationale and review of recent evidence

    W. Neuhofer
    Abstract Endothelin (ET) is a potent vasoconstrictory peptide with proinflammatory and profibrotic properties that exerts its biological effects through two pharmacologically distinct receptor subtypes, namely ETA and ETB. In addition to its substantial contribution to normal renal function, a large body of evidence suggests that derangement of the renal ET system is involved in the initiation and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetes, hypertension and glomerulonephritis. Thus, the use of ET receptor antagonists (ERAs) may offer potential novel treatment strategies in CKD. Recent literature on the role of the renal ET system in the healthy kidney was reviewed. In addition, an unbiased PubMed search was performed for studies published during the last 5 years that addressed the effects of ERAs in CKD. A particular objective was to extract information regarding whether selective or nonselective ERAs may have therapeutic potential in humans. ET-1 acts primarily as an autocrine or paracrine factor in the kidney. In normal physiology, ET-1 promotes diuresis and natriuresis by local production and action through ETB receptors in the renal medulla. In pathology, ET-1 mediates vasoconstriction, mesangial-cell proliferation, extracellular matrix production and inflammation, effects that are primarily conveyed by ETA receptors. Results obtained in animal models and in humans with the use of ERAs in CKD are encouraging; nevertheless, it is still under debate which receptor subtype should be targeted. According to most studies, selective inhibition of ETA receptors appears superior compared with nonselective ERAs because this approach does not interfere with the natriuretic, antihypertensive and ET clearance effects of ETB receptors. Although preliminary data in humans are promising, the potential role of ERAs in patients with CKD and the question of which receptor subtype should be targeted can only be clarified in randomized clinical trials. [source]

    In vivo application of mAb directed against the ,, TCR does not deplete but generates "invisible" ,, T cells

    Christian Koenecke
    Abstract mAb targeting the ,, TCR have been used for ,, T-cell depletion with varying success. Although the depletion-capacity of the anti-,, TCR mAb clone GL3 has been disputed repeatedly, many groups continue to use ,, T-cell depletion protocols involving the mAb clone UC7-13D5 and find significant biological effects. We show here that treatment with both GL3 and UC7-13D5 antibodies does not deplete ,, T cells in vivo, but rather leads to TCR internalization and thereby generates "invisible" ,, T cells. We addressed this issue using anti-,, TCR mAb injections into WT mice as well as into reporter TCR delta locus-histone 2B enhanced GFP knock-in mice, in which ,, T cells can be detected based on an intrinsic green fluorescence. Importantly, the use of TCR delta locus-histone 2B enhanced GFP mice provided here for the first time direct evidence that the "depleted" ,, T cells were actually still present. Our results show further that GL3 and UC7-13D5 mAb are in part cross-competing for the same epitope. Assessed by activation markers, we observed in vitro and in vivo activation of ,, T cells through mAb. We conclude that ,, T-cell depletion experiments must be evaluated with caution and discuss the implications for future studies on the physiological functions of ,, T cells. [source]

    Enhanced immunogenicity of CTL antigens through mutation of the CD8 binding MHC class,I invariant region

    Linda Wooldridge
    Abstract CD8+ cytotoxic T,lymphocytes (CTL) are key determinants of immunity to intracellular pathogens and neoplastic cells. Recognition of specific antigens in the form of peptide-MHC class,I complexes (pMHCI) presented on the target cell surface is mediated by T cell receptor (TCR) engagement. The CD8 coreceptor binds to invariant domains of pMHCI and facilitates antigen recognition. Here, we investigate the biological effects of a Q115E substitution in the ,2,domain of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 that enhances CD8 binding by,,50% without altering TCR/pMHCI interactions. Soluble and cell surface-expressed forms of Q115E HLA-A*0201 exhibit enhanced recognition by CTL without loss of specificity. These CD8-enhanced antigens induce greater CD3 ,,chain phosphorylation in cognate CTL leading to substantial increases in cytokine production, proliferation and priming of naive T cells. This effect provides a fundamental new mechanism with which to enhance cellular immunity to specific T cell antigens. [source]

    Cholinergic control of epidermal cohesion

    Sergei A. Grando
    Abstract:, The non-neuronal cholinergic system of human epidermis includes the keratinocyte (KC) acetylcholine (ACh) axis composed of the enzymes mediating ACh synthesis and degradation, and two classes of ACh receptors, the nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors, mediating biological effects of the cutaneous cytotransmitter ACh. Regulation of KC cell,cell and cell,matrix adhesion is one of the important biological functions of cutaneous ACh. The downstream targets of ACh effects mediated by distinct ACh receptor subtypes include both the intercellular adhesion molecules, such as classical and desmosomal cadherins, and integrins mediating KC adhesion to a substrate. The signaling pathways include activation or inhibition of kinase cascades resulting in either up- or down-regulation of the expression of cell adhesion molecules or changes in their phosphorylation status, or both. The components of the KC ACh axis are involved in cutaneous blistering in patients with autoimmune pemphigus, junctional and dystrophic forms of epidermolysis bullosa, thermal burns, and mustard-induced vesication. Recent progress with the development of antiacantholytic therapies of patients with pemphigus using cholinomimetics indicates that cholinergic drugs may be a promising approach for other cutaneous blistering disorders. [source]

    Vanadium-induced apoptosis of HaCaT cells is mediated by c-fos and involves nuclear accumulation of clusterin

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 14 2009
    Soultana Markopoulou
    Vanadium exerts a variety of biological effects, including antiproliferative responses through activation of the respective signaling pathways and the generation of reactive oxygen species. As epidermal cells are exposed to environmental insults, human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used to investigate the mechanism of the antiproliferative effects of vanadyl(IV) sulfate (VOSO4). Treatment of HaCaT cells with VOSO4 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of proliferation was associated with downregulation of cyclins D1 and E, E2F1, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Induction of apoptosis correlated with upregulation of the c-fos oncoprotein, changes in the expression of clusterin (CLU), an altered ratio of antiapoptotic to proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein family members, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage. Forced overexpression of c-fos induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells that correlated with secretory CLU downregulation and upregulation of nuclear CLU (nCLU), a pro-death protein. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protected HaCaT cells from vanadium-induced apoptosis, whereas secretory CLU overexpression offered no cytoprotection. In contrast, nCLU sensitized HaCaT cells to apoptosis. Our data suggest that vanadium-mediated apoptosis was promoted by c-fos, leading to alterations in CLU isoform processing and induction of the pro-death nCLU protein. [source]

    Aldehydes release zinc from proteins.

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2006
    A pathway from oxidative stress/lipid peroxidation to cellular functions of zinc
    Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, hyperglycemia-induced glycations and environmental exposures increase the cellular concentrations of aldehydes. A novel aspect of the molecular actions of aldehydes, e.g. acetaldehyde and acrolein, is their reaction with the cysteine ligands of zinc sites in proteins and concomitant zinc release. Stoichiometric amounts of acrolein release zinc from zinc,thiolate coordination sites in proteins such as metallothionein and alcohol dehydrogenase. Aldehydes also release zinc intracellularly in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and interfere with zinc-dependent signaling processes such as gene expression and phosphorylation. Thus both acetaldehyde and acrolein induce the expression of metallothionein and modulate protein tyrosine phosphatase activity in a zinc-dependent way. Since minute changes in the availability of cellular zinc have potent effects, zinc release is a mechanism of amplification that may account for many of the biological effects of aldehydes. The zinc-releasing activity of aldehydes establishes relationships among cellular zinc, the functions of endogenous and xenobiotic aldehydes, and redox stress, with implications for pathobiochemical and toxicologic mechanisms. [source]