Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Biological

  • cell biological
  • complex biological
  • many biological
  • molecular biological
  • other biological
  • specific biological

  • Terms modified by Biological

  • biological action
  • biological activity
  • biological adaptation
  • biological advantage
  • biological age
  • biological agent
  • biological aging
  • biological analysis
  • biological anthropology
  • biological application
  • biological approach
  • biological aspect
  • biological assessment
  • biological assumption
  • biological attribute
  • biological background
  • biological barrier
  • biological base
  • biological basis
  • biological behavior
  • biological behaviour
  • biological catalyst
  • biological cause
  • biological cell
  • biological change
  • biological characteristic
  • biological characterization
  • biological chemistry
  • biological child
  • biological clock
  • biological collection
  • biological community
  • biological complexity
  • biological complications
  • biological component
  • biological compound
  • biological condition
  • biological consequence
  • biological conservation
  • biological context
  • biological control
  • biological control agent
  • biological control programme
  • biological correlate
  • biological cost
  • biological criterioN
  • biological cycle
  • biological data
  • biological degradation
  • biological difference
  • biological discipline
  • biological distance
  • biological disturbance
  • biological diversification
  • biological diversity
  • biological effect
  • biological effects
  • biological efficacy
  • biological endpoint
  • biological entity
  • biological environment
  • biological evaluation
  • biological event
  • biological evidence
  • biological evolution
  • biological experiment
  • biological explanation
  • biological factor
  • biological father
  • biological feature
  • biological fluid
  • biological foundation
  • biological function
  • biological functionality
  • biological half-life
  • biological heterogeneity
  • biological imaging
  • biological impact
  • biological implication
  • biological importance
  • biological index
  • biological indicator
  • biological influence
  • biological information
  • biological insight
  • biological integrity
  • biological interaction
  • biological interest
  • biological interpretation
  • biological invasion
  • biological investigation
  • biological knowledge
  • biological level
  • biological literature
  • biological macromolecule
  • biological marker
  • biological material
  • biological matrix
  • biological measure
  • biological measurement
  • biological mechanism
  • biological mechanism underlying
  • biological media
  • biological membrane
  • biological methods
  • biological mixture
  • biological model
  • biological models
  • biological molecule
  • biological monitoring
  • biological mother
  • biological nature
  • biological network
  • biological nitrogen fixation
  • biological nutrient removal
  • biological organization
  • biological origin
  • biological outcome
  • biological oxygen demand
  • biological pacemaker
  • biological parameter
  • biological parent
  • biological particle
  • biological pathway
  • biological performance
  • biological phenomenoN
  • biological phenomenon
  • biological phenotype
  • biological phosphorus removal
  • biological plausibility
  • biological population
  • biological potential
  • biological principle
  • biological probe
  • biological problem
  • biological process
  • biological production
  • biological productivity
  • biological products
  • biological profile
  • biological property
  • biological quality
  • biological question
  • biological reaction
  • biological reactor
  • biological reference point
  • biological relative
  • biological relevance
  • biological removal
  • biological research
  • biological resource
  • biological response
  • biological response modifier
  • biological result
  • biological rhythm
  • biological risk
  • biological role
  • biological sample
  • biological science
  • biological screening
  • biological sensing
  • biological sensor
  • biological signal
  • biological significance
  • biological soil crust
  • biological source
  • biological species
  • biological species concept
  • biological specimen
  • biological station
  • biological strategy
  • biological structure
  • biological studies
  • biological substrate
  • biological survey
  • biological system
  • biological target
  • biological techniques
  • biological templates
  • biological test
  • biological testing
  • biological therapy
  • biological tissue
  • biological tool
  • biological trait
  • biological treatment
  • biological underpinning
  • biological unit
  • biological value
  • biological variability
  • biological variable
  • biological variation
  • biological warfare
  • biological wastewater treatment
  • biological weapons

  • Selected Abstracts

    Biological and environmental initial conditions shape the trajectories of cognitive and social-emotional development across the first years of life

    Ruth Feldman
    Human development is thought to evolve from the dynamic interchange of biological dispositions and environmental provisions; yet the effects of specific biological and environmental birth conditions on the trajectories of cognitive and social-emotional growth have rarely been studied. We observed 126 children at six time-points from birth to 5 years. Intelligence, maternal sensitivity, and child social engagement were repeatedly tested. Effects of neonatal vagal tone (VT) and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms on growth-rates were assessed. Cognitive development showed a substantial growth-spurt between 2 and 5 years and social engagement increased rapidly across the first year and more gradually thereafter. VT improved cognitive and social-emotional growth-rates across the first year, whereas maternal depressive symptoms interfered with growth from 2 to 5 years. Differences between infants with none, one, or two non-optimal birth conditions increased with age. Findings shed light on the dynamics of early development as it is shaped by biological and environmental initial conditions. [source]

    Functions in Biological and Artificial Worlds

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    Gerhard Schlosser Dr
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Distribution patterns of the Q and B biotypes of Bemisia tabaci in the Mediterranean Basin based on microsatellite variation

    B. Simón
    Abstract At least five of the biotypes described in the Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) complex are known to be present in the Mediterranean Basin area. Only two of them, however, are economically relevant, that is, biotypes B and Q. Biological and genetic differences between the two biotypes have been well studied, but less is known about their patterns of genetic variation and population structure. To address these issues, a study was undertaken based on variation at six microsatellite loci among a subset of nine B. tabaci populations (five belonging to the Q and four to the B biotype). The data obtained show that (i) these loci showed considerable polymorphism in the Q and B biotypes populations although the presence of null alleles can obscure the picture; (ii) the Iberian-Q, Canarian-Q, and Egyptian-B populations exhibit heterozygosity excess as a result of bottleneck events; (iii) the low genetic differentiation between the Israeli, Iberian Peninsula, and Italian populations suggest that these populations share a common gene pool; (iv) the genetic distances between the Canarian-Q population and the geographically close population from Morocco indicates spatial isolation and a limited gene flow; and finally (v) the microsatellite data for the B populations indicate that the whiteflies from Egypt and Israel have a close phylogenetic relationship, but the source of these biotype B invasions into the Mediterranean area remains unknown. [source]

    Biological and biochemical differences between in vitro- and in vivo-reared Exorista larvarum

    Maria Luisa Dindo
    Abstract Quantitative and qualitative parameters of Exorista larvarum (L.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) reared on two insect-material-free artificial media and in the factitious host Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were compared. Significantly higher puparial yields and weights were obtained in both a milk-based and a veal homogenate-based medium than in the factitious host. Longevity and parasitization rates were not different between the in vitro- and in vivo-reared flies. Despite the greater puparial weight of the veal medium-reared E. larvarum females, the number of eggs laid by these females on host larvae was not higher than that of females reared under the other two rearing conditions. Moreover, in a complementary experiment, with homogeneous puparial weights of milk medium- and host-reared females, the former oviposited fewer eggs. Hence, puparial weight alone is not a reliable quality parameter for E. larvarum reared on artificial media. Lower amino acid content, with a deficiency in aromatic amino acids and an excess in proline, was found for in vitro third instar parasitoid larvae reared on both media compared to the in vivo-reared ones. These results suggest a correlation between the amino acid deficiency and imbalance of medium-reared larvae and the lower number of eggs laid by the females obtained. [source]

    Searching PubMed for molecular epidemiology studies: The case of chromosome aberrations

    Donatella Ugolini
    Abstract The available tools for searching literature in the field of Molecular Epidemiology are largely unsatisfactory. To identify major problems in retrieving information on this discipline, we comment here on the results of a literature search on cytogenetic biomarkers in children exposed to environmental pollutants. The search, done on the PubMed/MedLine database, was based on a strategy combining descriptors listed in the PubMed Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus and other available tools (free text or phrase search tools). 178 articles were retrieved by searching the period from January 1, 1980 to November 30, 2004. Only 2 of the 178 articles were indexed by the MeSH term "Epidemiology, molecular" (introduced in 1994) and 30 of 178 by the MeSH term "Biological markers" (introduced in 1989). The case of chromosome aberration (CA) was emblematic of the problem: 44 of 78 articles (56.4%) were not pertinent to the search. The reasons for this poor performance are reported and discussed. Authors and indexers may be able to improve the efficiency of article retrieval in the field of molecular epidemiology by using relevant terms in the title and abstract. This may suggest appropriate MeSH terms to the indexers for the indexing process. As regards the difficulty in identifiyng population studies using CA, the introduction of a specific MeSH term for chromosome aberrations when used as a biomarker would improve the search process. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Molecular Library Obtained by Allene Insertion into the Pd,C Bond of Cyclopalladated Complexes: Biological and Pharmacological Evaluation

    Claude Sirlin
    Abstract A minilibrary of cationic N-heterocycles has been prepared and evaluated. The potential for the preparation was a result of the high versatility of palladium-mediated chemistry. The synthesis of the novel molecules was based on intramolecular quaternization of tertiary amine attached allylpalladium complexes. The steric and electronic factors of the reaction are discussed. The structures of the synthesized molecules made them candidates for precise biological and pharmacological evaluations. Of the various N-heterocyclic compounds, 2,2-dimethyl-3-methylenenaphtho[def]quinolizinium showed antibacterial activity at micromolar concentrations. This compound also proved to be a nanomolar competitive antagonist for the channel site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]

    Biological and physicochemical processes and control of soil organic matter stabilization and turnover

    Ingrid Kögel-Knabner
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A synthesis of biological and physical processes affecting the feeding environment of larval walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the eastern Bering Sea

    Biological and physical phenomena that affect conditions for larval survival and eventual recruitment differ in the oceanic and shelf regions. In the oceanic region, eddies are a common feature. While their genesis is not well known, eddies have unique biophysical characteristics and occur with such regularity that they likely affect larval survival. High concentrations of larval pollock often are associated with eddies. Some eddies are transported onto the shelf, thereby providing larvae to the Outer Shelf Domain. Advection, rather than local production, dominated the observed springtime increase in chlorophyll (often a correlate of larval food) in the oceanic region. Over two-thirds of the south-eastern shelf, eddies are absent and other phenomena are important. Sea ice is a feature of the shelf region: its interannual variability (time of arrival, persistence, and areal extent) affects developmental rate of larvae, timing of the phytoplankton bloom (and potentially the match/mismatch of larvae and prey), and abundance and distribution of juvenile pollock. In the oceanic region, interannual variation in food for first-feeding pollock larvae is determined by advection; in the shelf region, it is the coupled dynamics of the atmosphere,ice,ocean system. [source]

    Biological and ecological traits of benthic freshwater macroinvertebrates: relationships and definition of groups with similar traits

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Philippe Usseglio-Polatera
    Summary 1Relating species traits to habitat characteristics can provide important insights into the structure and functioning of stream communities. However, trade-offs among species traits make it difficult to predict accurately the functional diversity of freshwater communities. Many authors have pointed to the value of working with groups of organisms as similar as possible in terms of relationships among traits and have called for definition of groups of organisms with similar suites of attributes. 2We used multivariate analyses to examine separately the relationships among 11 biological traits and among 11 ecological traits of 472 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa (mainly genera). The main objective was to demonstrate (1) potential trade-offs among traits; (2) the importance of the different traits to separate systematic units or functional groupings; and (3) uniform functional groups of taxa that should allow a more effective use of macroinvertebrate biological and ecological traits. 3We defined eight groups and 15 subgroups according to a biological trait ordination which highlighted size (large to small), reproductive traits (K to r strategists), food (animal to plant material) and feeding habits (predator to scraper and/or deposit feeder) as ,significant' factors determining the ordination of taxa. This ordination partly preserved phylogenetic relationships among groups. 4Seven ecological groups and 13 ecological subgroups included organisms with combinations of traits which should be successively more adequate in habitats from the main channel to temporary waters, and from the crenon to the potamic sections of rivers, and to systems situated outside the river floodplain. These gradients corresponded to a gradual shift from (1) rheophilic organisms that lived in the main channel of cold oligotrophic mountain streams to (2) animals that preferred eutrophic habitats of still or temporary waters in lowlands. The groups with similar ecological traits had a more diverse systematic structure than those with similar biological traits. 5Monitoring and assessment tools for the management of water resources are generally more effective if they are based on a clear understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the presence or absence of species groups in the environment. We believe that groups with similar relationships among their species traits may be useful in developing tools that measure the functional diversity of communities. [source]

    Gold Nanorods: From Synthesis and Properties to Biological and Biomedical Applications

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 48 2009
    Xiaohua Huang
    Abstract Noble metal nanoparticles are capable of confining resonant photons in such a manner as to induce coherent surface plasmon oscillation of their conduction band electrons, a phenomenon leading to two important properties. Firstly, the confinement of the photon to the nanoparticle's dimensions leads to a large increase in its electromagnetic field and consequently great enhancement of all the nanoparticle's radiative properties, such as absorption and scattering. Moreover, by confining the photon's wavelength to the nanoparticle's small dimensions, there exists enhanced imaging resolving powers, which extend well below the diffraction limit, a property of considerable importance in potential device applications. Secondly, the strongly absorbed light by the nanoparticles is followed by a rapid dephasing of the coherent electron motion in tandem with an equally rapid energy transfer to the lattice, a process integral to the technologically relevant photothermal properties of plasmonic nanoparticles. Of all the possible nanoparticle shapes, gold nanorods are especially intriguing as they offer strong plasmonic fields while exhibiting excellent tunability and biocompatibility. We begin this review of gold nanorods by summarizing their radiative and nonradiative properties. Their various synthetic methods are then outlined with an emphasis on the seed-mediated chemical growth. In particular, we describe nanorod spontaneous self-assembly, chemically driven assembly, and polymer-based alignment. The final section details current studies aimed at applications in the biological and biomedical fields. [source]

    Biological and caregiver correlates of behavioral inhibition

    Ty Partridge
    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among measures of behavioral inhibition, physiological reactivity, and caregiver attitudes. Measures comprised of heart rate; survey assessments of caregiver empathy with the child, appropriateness of caregiver developmental expectations of the child, and use of positive discipline techniques; and observational measures of behavioral inhibition were gathered in a laboratory setting on 72, 5,6-year old children. It was found that heart rate and behavioral inhibition were positively correlated (0.595), whereas behavioral inhibition was negatively correlated with caregiver attitudes of empathy (,0.356), appropriate expectations (,0.366), and use of positive discipline techniques (,0.275). However, there was no correlation between heart rate and caregiver attitudes. These data suggest that physiological reactivity to novel stimuli and caregiver attitudes of empathy, appropriate expectations, and use of positive discipline techniques conjointly influence behavioral inhibition in early childhood. Further, these three caregiver variables accounted for significant variance in children who had high reactive physiological profiles associated with inhibited behavior patterns, but did not display such patterns. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Biological and Biomimetic Materials

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 4 2009
    Joanna Aizenberg
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with increased risk and progression of renal cell carcinoma in a Japanese population

    Wataru Obara
    Aim: Biological and epidemiologic data suggest that 1 alpha, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) levels may influence development of renal cell carcinoma. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a crucial mediator for the cellular effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and additionally interacts with other cell signaling pathways that influence cancer progression. VDR gene polymorphisms may play an important role in risk of incidence for various malignant tumors. This study investigated whether VDR gene polymorphisms were associated with increased risk and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a Japanese population. Methods: To analyze risk of RCC depending on VDR polymorphism, a case,control association study was performed. The VDR gene polymorphisms at three locations, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI, were genotyped in 135 RCC patients and 150 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression models were used to assess the genetic effects on prognosis. Results: Significant differences in the ApaI genotype were observed between RCC patients and controls (,2 = 6.90, P = 0.032). No statistical significant difference was found in the BsmI and TaqI polymorphisms. The frequency of the AA genotype in the ApaI polymorphism was significantly higher in the RCC patients than in the controls (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence intervals, 1.21,5.55; P = 0.012). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the AA genotype was an independent prognostic factor for cause-specific survival (relative risk 3.3; P = 0.038). Conclusion: The AA genotype at the ApaI site of the VDR gene may be a risk of incidence and poor prognosis factor for RCC in the Japanese population. Additional studies with a large sample size and investigation of the functional significance of the ApaI polymorphism in RCC cells are warranted. [source]

    Biological, social, and community influences on third-grade reading levels of minority Head Start children: A multilevel approach

    Virginia A. Rauh
    The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of individual and community level risks on school outcomes of children who attend Head Start. We studied a sample of 3,693 African American and Hispanic children who had been born in New York City, participated in Head Start, and attended New York City public schools. The outcome was the score obtained on a citywide third-grade reading test. Individual level risk factors were derived from birth certificate data. Community level risks were extracted from citywide U.S. Census data and other public-access data sets. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that at the individual level, lower reading scores were significantly associated with: male gender, low birth weight, unmarried mother, low maternal education, and inadequate interpregnancy spacing. Controlling for individual-level risk, concentrated community poverty significantly lowered reading scores, and a high percentage of immigrants in the community significantly raised scores. There was also a significant crosslevel effect: boys benefited more than girls from the immigrant community effect. The evidence suggests that we can better identify children at future educational risk and maximize the success of early intervention programs by exploring influences on school success at multiple levels, including the community. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 31: 255,278, 2003. [source]

    PM3-compatible zinc parameters optimized for metalloenzyme active sites

    Edward N. Brothers
    Abstract Recent studies have shown that semiempirical methods (e.g., PM3 and AM1) for zinc-containing compounds are unreliable for modeling structures containing zinc ions with ligand environments similar to those observed in zinc metalloenzymes. To correct these deficiencies a reparameterization of zinc at the PM3 level was undertaken. In this effort we included frequency corrected B3LYP/6-311G* zinc metalloenzyme ligand environments along with previously utilized experimental data. Average errors for the heats of formation have been reduced from 46.9 kcal/mol (PM3) to 14.2 kcal/mol for this new parameter set, termed ZnB for "Zinc, Biological." In addition, the new parameter sets predict geometries for the Bacillus fragilis active site model and other zinc metalloenzyme mimics that are qualitatively in agreement with high-level ab initio results, something existing parameter sets failed to do. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 1677,1692, 2004 [source]

    Biological, pharmaceutical, and analytical considerations with respect to the transport media used in the absorption screening system, Caco-2

    Françoise M. Ingels
    Abstract During the evaluation and selection of drug candidates, the Caco-2 cell culture system is commonly used for the determination of intestinal transport characteristics and to anticipate permeability limited drug absorption. Although classic HBSS-like buffered salt solutions are commonly used to perform Caco-2 transport experiments, different shortcomings (e.g., adsorption and low solubility) have been associated with the use of plain aqueous buffers. As transport experiments performed with unoptimized conditions may compromize the value of the Caco-2 model as a permeation screening tool, many efforts have been made to optimize the experimental conditions of Caco-2 transport assays. In this minireview, the hurdles associated with the use of saline aqueous buffers in Caco-2 transport experiments are summarized and the different options, which have been proposed to overcome these issues, are reviewed and discussed. Biologically, pharmaceutically, as well as analytically relevant media affecting the outcome of the transport experiments are described. Unfortunately, up to now, no systematic studies comparing the different experimental conditions have been performed, jeopardizing the possibility to define a (single) optimal solution to overcome the different issues associated with the use of saline aqueous buffers. Based on the reported options it can be proposed to use DMSO (,1%) in standard screening procedures for the ranking of compounds based on their apical to basolateral transport. If compounds are not soluble in DMSO 1%, dimethylacetamide (3%) or N -1-methyl-pyrrolidone (2.5%) are good alternatives. However, these options do not imitate the in vivo situation. If one wants to take into account the physiological relevance of the media, the use of a biologically relevant apical medium (e.g., FASSIF) in combination with an analytically friendly, sink condition creating basolateral solvent (e.g., containing a micelle forming agent) can be suggested. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 92:1545,1558, 2003 [source]

    Biological and Molecular Characterization of Taiwanese Isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus Associated with Banana Mosaic Disease

    Chun-Nan Chou
    Abstract Banana mosaic disease (BMD) caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has become an important threat to the banana industry. We collected and characterized 10 CMV isolates associated with BMD in Taiwan and compared their biological characteristics and coat protein sequences. The isolates fell into four pathotypes on the basis of the symptoms they induce on banana, Nicotiana glutinosa and Vigna unguiculata (cowpea). Double-stranded RNA analysis revealed that the different pathotypes are not related to the presence of CMV satellite RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of worldwide CMV coat protein sequences revealed that among the currently known CMV subgroups IA, IB and II, subgroup IB is phylogenetically unresolved. Our CMV isolates form a new subgroup, IT, within subgroup I. In addition, we resolved another new CMV subgroup, IS, within subgroup I. The analysis also revealed that isolates within different subgroups can infect the banana. [source]

    Biological and Molecular Variability of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Iran,

    Kaveh Bananej
    Abstract Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV; family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus) causes high yield losses to cucurbits in many parts of the world. The virus was detected for the first time in Iran in 1988, but the isolates have not been characterized. To study the genetic and biological diversity among Iranian ZYMV isolates, a set of twelve isolates, obtained during an extensive survey conducted from 2003 to 2006 in the major cucurbit-growing areas, were characterized. An experimental host range study of these isolates (referred as Iran-1 to Iran-12) revealed some variation in their biological properties. The nucleotide sequences of the genomic portion spanning the C-terminal part of NIb and N-terminal part of coat protein (CP) coding region were determined and compared with other available sequences. The identity among Iranian ZYMV isolates at the amino acid level reached 95.6,100%. The Iranian ZYMV isolates did not form a compact cluster in the phylogenetic tree, and the phylogenetic analyses and the estimation of genetic distance indicate that the Iranian ZYMV group consists of several independent introductions that evolved separately. [source]

    Biological and Molecular Characterization of Melon-Infecting Kyuri Green Mottle Mosaic Virus in Indonesia

    B. S. Daryono
    Abstract Melon (Cucumis melo L.) plants showing fruit deformation and mosaic symptoms were found in Java, Indonesia, in 2001. Leaf dips of the symptomatic melon tissue revealed rod-shaped viral particles 300 × 18 nm in size. Biological and serological data described in this study indicate that the virus belonged to the genus tobamovirus and was related to the kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV). The genome of the virus has been completely sequenced, consisting of 6512 nucleotides and was compared in detail with KGMMV-C1 and KGMMV-Y. The sequence of their 5,- and 3,- non-coding regions (NCRs) were 91% and 94% identical to KGMMV-C1, and only 82% and 95% identical to KGMMV-Y respectively. The amino acid sequence of the shorter and longer RNA replicase components, movement protein and coat protein were 94%, 91%, 95% and 94% identical to KGMMV-C1 and 93%, 89%, 91% and 85% identical of KGMMV-Y respectively. The results from phylogenetic analysis of the coding regions revealed that KGMMV-YM is a new strain of KGMMV. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of genome organization for KGMMV isolated in anywhere in South-East Asia. [source]

    Biological,synthetic hybrid block copolymers: Combining the best from two worlds

    Harm-Anton Klok
    Abstract Although biopolymers and synthetic polymers share many common features, each of these two classes of materials is also characterized by a distinct and very specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Combining biopolymer elements with synthetic polymers into a single macromolecular conjugate is an interesting strategy for synergetically merging the properties of the individual components and overcoming some of their limitations. This article focuses on a special class of biological,synthetic hybrids that are obtained by site-selective conjugation of a protein or peptide and a synthetic polymer. The first part of the article gives an overview of the different liquid-phase and solid-phase techniques that have been developed for the synthesis of well-defined, that is, site-selectively conjugated, synthetic polymer,protein hybrids. In the second part, the properties and potential applications of these materials are discussed. The conjugation of biological and synthetic macromolecules allows the modulation of protein binding and recognition properties and is a powerful strategy for mediating the self-assembly of synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymer,protein hybrids are already used as medicines and show significant promise for bioanalytical applications and bioseparations. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 1,17, 2005 [source]

    A Review of Genetic, Biological, Pharmacological, and Clinical Factors That Affect Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2004
    Michael F. Fleming
    Background: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is an alcohol biomarker recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This test is increasingly being used to detect and monitor alcohol use in a variety of health care, legal, and industrial settings. The goal of this study is to review the genetic, biological, pharmacological, and clinical factors that may affect CDT levels. Methods: A review of the literature identified 95 research articles that met the authors' criteria and reported potential interactions of a variety of factors on percent and total CDT levels. The review established 12 categories of variables that may affect CDT levels. These categories include (1) alcohol use, (2) genetic factors, (3) race, (4) gender, (5) age, (6) liver disease, (7) iron levels, (8) tobacco use, (9) medication such as estrogen and anticonvulsants, (10) metabolic factors such as body mass index and total body water, (11) chronic medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, and (12) surgical patients. Results: There is evidence that %CDT levels are affected by alcohol use, end-stage liver disease, and genetic variants. In addition to these three factors, total CDT levels (CDTect) are also affected by factors that raise transferrin levels such as iron deficiency, chronic illnesses, and menopausal status. Other potential factors such as tobacco and age appear to be confounded by alcohol use. The roles of female gender, low body mass index, chronic inflammatory diseases, and medication on CDT levels require further study. False negatives are associated with female gender, episodic lower level alcohol use, and acute trauma with blood loss. Conclusions: This review suggests that a number of factors are associated with false-positive CDTect and %CDT levels. CDT offers great promise to assist physicians in the care of patients to detect and monitor heavy alcohol use. [source]

    The significance of small herbivores in structuring annual grassland

    Halton A. Peters
    Abstract Question: Herbivores can play a fundamental role in regulating the composition and structure of terrestrial plant communities. Relatively inconspicuous but nevertheless ubiquitous gastropods and small mammals are usually considered to influence grassland communities through distinct modes. 1. Do terrestrial gastropods and small mammals, either alone or in combination, influence plant community composition of an intact annual grassland? 2. Do these herbivores influence the plant size structure of the dominant grass Avena? Location: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (37°24' N, 122° 13' W, elevation 150 m) in northern California. Methods: Animal exclosures were used to examine the single and combined influences of these herbivores on annual grassland production, community composition, and plant size structure during the growing season of an intact annual grassland. Results: The removal and exclusion of the herbivores increased the prevalence of grasses relative to legumes and non-legume forbs; increased total production of above-ground plant biomass; and increased mean plant size and exacerbated size hierarchies in populations of Avena. The effect of both gastropods and small mammals, alone and in combination, was characterized by temporal oscillations in the relative dominance of grasses in plots with vs. without herbivores. Conclusions: Both groups of herbivores are important controllers of California annual grassland that exert similar influences on production and composition. While other factors appear to determine the absolute number of individuals in this plant community, selective consumption of grasses by gastropods and small mammals partially offsets the competitive advantages associated with their early germination. [source]

    Biological and evolutionary explanations , a reply to F.E. Zachos

    W. J. Bock
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cellular Adhesion, Proliferation and Viability on Conducting Polymer Substrates

    Luis J. del Valle
    Abstract This work reports a comprehensive study about cell adhesion and proliferation on the surface of different electroactive substrates formed by ,-conjugated polymers. Biological assays were performed considering four different cellular lines: two epithelial and two fibroblasts. On the other hand, the electroactivity of the three conducting systems was determined in physiological conditions. Results indicate that the three substrates behave as a cellular matrix, even though compatibility with cells is larger for PPy and the 3-layered system. Furthermore, the three polymeric systems are electro-compatible with the cellular monolayers. [source]

    Monitoring a Marine Coastal Area: Use of Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mullus barbatus as Bioindicators

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 2002
    Ilaria Corsi
    Abstract. Samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mullus barbatus were collected in eight coastal sites along the South Adriatic and Ionic coasts of Italy in spring 2000 for a survey of coastal pollution in the Mediterranean basin. Specimens were analysed using an integrated approach based on residue analysis of common aquatic pollutants like organochlorines such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), DDTs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals and nonylphenols (NPnE) and biomarker responses such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the two specific P450 activities benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase (BPMO) and 7-ethoxyre-sorufin-(9-deethylase (EROD). Biological and morphological parameters like somatic liver index (SLI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonadal and gamete histology (eggs and sperms) were also evaluated in red mullet samples. A contamination gradient in which several hot spots occur were revealed in this study. The hot spots account for high levels of organochlorines in both species near incinerators and of PAHs in harbour areas. Levels of both NPnE and AChE activity were highest in two protected marine areas and were within detectable limits in others. This finding was confirmed by P450 activities, in which maximum levels were detected in harbours and protected marine areas. No morphological alterations of male and female gonads were observed on the histological level. [source]

    Biological and Optical Properties of Fluorescent Nanoparticles Developed for Intravascular Imaging

    Dino J. Ravnic
    Abstract Intravascular tracers in the blood circulation can provide a description of the flow field over time and space. To address the limitations of existing intravascular tracers, we have developed fluorescent nanoparticles capable of providing detailed information regarding the intravascular flow field. The nanoparticles were designed to maximize plasma half-life as well as minimize interactions with other blood components. The bioavailability of the particles in the blood circulation required nanoscale size and low surface charge density. Intravital imaging of nanoparticles in the microcirculation demonstrated that the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles was a major determinant of both temporal and spatial resolution of the flow field. We conclude that nanoparticles prepared with these physical and optical properties can provide an accurate description of the localized intravascular flow field. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Biological and Cultural Anthropology of a Changing Tropical Forest: A Fruitful Collaboration across Subfields

    In this article, we integrate approaches from biological and cultural anthropology to describe changing relationships between humans and animals in the Dzanga-Ndoki Park and Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic (CAR). Recent decades have seen a rapid proliferation of human activities, with striking tensions between logging and conservation economies. Our data suggest that certain animals and humans initially adapted successfully to these forest uses, and that local residents have crafted culturally rich new ways of living in the forest. However, our longitudinal data indicate animal declines and expanding frontiers of increasingly intensive human use. These trends are altering previous territorial arrangements and coming to undermine today's remarkably rich spectrum of human,animal encounters there. Our combined approach offers an alternative to increasingly distinct method and theory between anthropology's subfields. We sketch a research agenda for integrated anthropological attention to environmental change, especially to transformations in human,animal interactions and entanglements. [source]

    The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins

    Milford Wolpoff
    The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins, Richard G. Klein. 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. 810 pp. [source]

    Absence of hypercoagulability in acute Kawasaki disease

    Ming-Tsan Lin
    AbstractBackground:,Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis syndrome with the striking feature of cardiovascular involvement. Endothelial cell (EC) damage has been suggested to predispose individuals to the development of coronary vascular disorders. When EC are perturbed, prethrombotic complications ensue. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical relevance of EC activation and hypercoagulability in the pathogenesis of KD and to determine if plasma levels of these markers are correlated with the development of coronary aneurysms. Methods:,EC function and coagulation status were assessed in 52 patients with acute KD, 20 febrile control subjects, and 20 healthy control subjects. Biological markers of EC and hypercoagulability were measured and included thrombomodulin, tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, von Willebrand factor (vWF), coagulation factor VII (FVII), activated factor VII, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and D-dimer. Results:,Transient dilatation of coronary arteries was the most common complication (55.8%), and coronary aneurysm was noted in five patients (9.6%). Levels of vWF, FVII, F1 + 2 and D-dimer were higher in acute KD patients compared with healthy controls but not febrile controls. Markers of EC and hypercoagulability were not different between patients with cardiac complications and those without cardiac complications. Biological and immunological assays did not demonstrate the prethrombotic state in acute KD. Conclusions:,Our results suggest that hypercoagulability does not occur during the acute stage of KD. Markers of EC damage and hypercoagulability are not predictive of coronary aneurysms in KD. [source]

    Characterisation of QoI-resistant field isolates of Botrytis cinerea from citrus and strawberry

    Hideo Ishii
    Abstract BACKGROUND: In 2004, field isolates of Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., resistant to strobilurin fungicides (QoIs), were first found in commercial citrus orchards in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Subsequently, QoI-resistant isolates of this fungus were also detected in plastic strawberry greenhouses in Saga, Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures, Japan. Biological and molecular characterisation of resistant isolates was conducted in this study. RESULTS: QoI-resistant isolates of B. cinerea grew well on PDA plates containing kresoxim-methyl or azoxystrobin at 1 mg L,1, supplemented with 1 mM of n -propyl gallate, an inhibitor of alternative oxidase, whereas the growth of sensitive isolates was strongly suppressed. Results from this in vitro test were in good agreement with those of fungus inoculation tests in vivo. In resistant isolates, the mutation at amino acid position 143 of the cytochrome b gene, known to be the cause of high QoI resistance in various fungal pathogens, was found, but only occasionally. The heteroplasmy of cytochrome b gene was confirmed, and the wild-type sequence often present in the majority of resistant isolates, indicating that the proportion of mutated cytochrome b gene was very low. CONCLUSION: The conventional RFLP and sequence analyses of PCR-amplified cytochrome b gene are insufficient for molecular identification of QoI resistance in B. cinerea. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]