Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Biodiversity

  • coastal biodiversity
  • conserving biodiversity
  • farmland biodiversity
  • forest biodiversity
  • freshwater biodiversity
  • fungal biodiversity
  • global biodiversity
  • high biodiversity
  • local biodiversity
  • marine biodiversity
  • microbial biodiversity
  • native biodiversity
  • plant biodiversity
  • terrestrial biodiversity
  • tropical biodiversity

  • Terms modified by Biodiversity

  • biodiversity action plan
  • biodiversity assessment
  • biodiversity benefit
  • biodiversity change
  • biodiversity conservation
  • biodiversity crisis
  • biodiversity data
  • biodiversity databases
  • biodiversity dynamics
  • biodiversity effects
  • biodiversity hotspot
  • biodiversity index
  • biodiversity indicator
  • biodiversity loss
  • biodiversity measure
  • biodiversity pattern
  • biodiversity protection
  • biodiversity research
  • biodiversity studies
  • biodiversity surrogate
  • biodiversity survey
  • biodiversity value

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2004
    Jon R. Bridle
    Abstract Concordant areas of endemism among taxa have important implications both for understanding mechanisms of speciation and for framing conservation priorities. Here we discuss the need for careful testing of phylogeographic data for evidence of such concordance, with particular reference to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. This is because there are good reasons to question whether concordance between taxa is likely to be a common pattern, and because of the serious implications of incorrectly concluding that the biodiversity of a given area can be partitioned in this way. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    The Corallinoideae (Corallinaceae) is represented in the northeastern Atlantic by Corallina officinalis L.; Corallina elongata J. Ellis et Sol.; Haliptilon squamatum (L.) H. W. Johans., L. M. Irvine et A. M. Webster; and Jania rubens (L.) J. V. Lamour. The delimitation of these geniculate coralline red algae is based primarily on morphological characters. Molecular analysis based on cox1 and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies supported the division of the Corallinoideae into the tribes Janieae and Corallineae. Within the Janieae, a sequence difference of 46,48 bp (8.6%,8.9%) between specimens of H. squamatum and J. rubens in the cox1 phylogeny leads us to conclude that they are congeneric. J. rubens var. rubens and J. rubens var. corniculata (L.) Yendo clustered together in both phylogenies, suggesting that for those genes, there was no genetic basis for the morphological variation. Within the Corallineae, it appears that in some regions, the name C. elongata has been misapplied. C. officinalis samples formed two clusters that differed by 45,54 bp (8.4%,10.0%), indicating species-level divergence, and morphological differences were sufficient to define two species. One of these clusters was consistent with the morphology of the type specimen of C. officinalis (LINN 1293.9). The other species cluster is therefore described here as Corallina caespitosa sp. nov. This study has demonstrated that there is a clear need for a revision of the genus Corallina to determine the extent of "pseudocryptic" diversity in this group of red algae. [source]

    Conservation and Conflict Mitigating the Effects of War on Biodiversity

    CONSERVATION, Issue 1 2003
    Article first published online: 8 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Biophilia as a Universal Ethic for Conserving Biodiversity

    First page of article [source]

    Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes: Saving Natural Capital without Losing Interest

    Charles Perrings
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Conservation of the Biodiversity of Brazil's Inland Waters

    Threatened freshwater species include 44 species of invertebrates (mostly Porifera) and 134 fishes (mostly Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae), primarily distributed in south and southeastern Brazil. Reasons for the declines in biodiversity in Brazilian inland waters include pollution and eutrophication, siltation, impoundments and flood control, fisheries, and species introductions. These problems are more conspicuous in the more-developed regions. The majority of protected areas in Brazil have been created for terrestrial fauna and flora, but they also protect significant water bodies and wetlands. As a result, although very poorly documented, these areas are of great importance for aquatic species. A major and pressing challenge is the assessment of the freshwater biodiversity in protected areas and surveys to better understand the diversity and geography of freshwater species in Brazil. The concept of umbrella species (e.g., certain migratory fishes) would be beneficial for the protection of aquatic biodiversity and habitats. The conservation and improved management of river corridors and associated floodplains and the maintenance of their hydrological integrity is fundamental to preserving Brazil's freshwater biodiversity and the health of its aquatic resources. Resumen:,En términos de biodiversidad, las aguas interiores de Brasil son de enorme importancia global para Algae (25% de las especies del mundo), Porifera (Demospongiae, 33%), Rotifera (25%), Cladocera (Branchiopoda, 20%) y peces (21%). Las especies dulceacuícolas amenazadas incluyen a 44 especies de invertebrados (la mayoría Porifera) y 134 de peces (en su mayor parte Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae), distribuidos principalmente en el sur y sureste de Brasil. Las razones de la declinación en la biodiversidad de aguas interiores de Brasil incluyen contaminación y eutrofización, sedimentación, represas y control de inundaciones, pesquerías e introducción de especies. Estos problemas son más conspicuos en las regiones más desarrolladas. La mayoría de las áreas protegidas en Brasil han sido creadas para fauna y flora terrestres, pero también protegen a considerable número de cuerpos de agua y humedales y, aunque muy deficientemente documentado, como tales son de gran importancia para las especies acuáticas. La evaluación de la biodiversidad dulceacuícola en áreas protegidas y muestreos para un mejor entendimiento de la diversidad y geografía de especies dulceacuícolas de Brasil son un reto mayor y apremiante. El concepto de especies sombrilla (e.g., ciertos peces migratorios) sería benéfico para la protección de biodiversidad y hábitats acuáticos. La conservación y perfeccionamiento de la gestión de corredores fluviales y las llanuras de inundación asociadas y el mantenimiento de su integridad hidrológica son fundamentales para preservar la biodiversidad dulceacuícola de Brasil y la salud de sus recursos acuáticos. [source]

    Conservation Planning and Biodiversity: Assembling the Best Data for the Job

    First page of article [source]

    Enhancement of Farmland Biodiversity within Set-Aside Land

    agricultura; biodiversidad; conservación; terrenos de reserva Abstract:,The efficacy of agricultural set-aside policies for protecting farmland biodiversity is widely debated. Based on a meta-analysis of 127 published studies, we found that land withdrawn from conventional production unequivocally enhances biodiversity in North America and Europe. The number of species of birds, insects, spiders, and plants is 1,1.5 standard deviation units higher on set-aside land, and population densities increase by 0.5,1 standard deviation units. Set-aside land may be especially beneficial for desirable taxa because North American bird species that have exhibited population declines react most positively to set-aside agricultural land. Larger and older plots protect more species and higher densities, and set-aside land is more effective in countries with less-intensive agricultural practices and higher fractions of land removed from production. Although policies specifically designed to protect biodiversity might work even better, current incentives clearly improve the standing of plants and animals in farmland. Resumen:,La eficiencia de las políticas de reservas agrícolas para la protección de la biodiversidad en tierras cultivadas esta ámpliamente debatida. Con base en un meta-análisis de 127 estudios publicados, encontramos que terrenos retirados de la producción convencional inequívocamente mejoran la biodiversidad en Norte América y Europa. El número de especies de aves, insectos, arañas y plantas es 1-1.5 unidades de desviación estándar más alto en terrenos de reserva, y las densidades de población incrementan en 0.5-1 unidades de desviación estándar. Los terrenos de reserva pueden ser especialmente benéficos para taxones deseables porque especies de aves norteamericanas que han presentado una declinación poblacional reaccionan positivamente a terrenos agrícolas de reserva. Parcelas más grandes y viejas protegen a más especies y tienen mayores densidades, y los terrenos de reserva son más efectivos en países con prácticas agrícolas menos intensivas y con mayores fracciones de tierras removidas de la producción. Aunque las políticas diseñadas específicamente para proteger la biodiversidad pueden ser mejores aún, los incentivos actuales claramente mejoran la situación de plantas y animales en tierras agrícolas. [source]

    Studying Biodiversity on Private Lands

    Jodi Hilty
    Private lands harbor a great amount of biodiversity, including at least some habitat for 95% of the federally listed species in the United States. It is important to conduct conservation biology research on private lands, but our review of the literature indicates that few conservation-oriented field studies are conducted on private property. Based on our success in obtaining permission to conduct research on 43 land parcels in Sonoma County, California, we developed methods to enhance a conservation biologist's chance of obtaining permission to work on private lands. We provide guidelines for researchers to conduct studies successfully on private land with the goal of improving access, data collection, and relationships with private landowners. We also discuss constraints researchers face, such as designing studies appropriate for working on privately owned parcels. In light of the importance of these lands to biodiversity conservation, greater effort should be made to conduct research on private lands. Resumen: Más de la mitad de la tierra en los Estados Unidos es propiedad privada. Las tierras de propiedad privada albergan una gran cantidad de biodiversidad, incluyendo al menos algunos hábitats para el 95% de las especies incluidas en la lista nacional de especies en peligro de extinción en los Estados Unidos. Es importante llevar a cabo investigación sobre biología de la conservación en tierras privadas, pero nuestra revisión de la literatura indica que existen pocos estudios a campo orientados hacia la conservación en propiedades privadas. En base a nuestro éxito en obtener permisos para llevar a cabo estudios de investigación en 43 parcelas de tierra en el condado de Sonoma, California, desarrollamos métodos para mejorar las posibilidades de los biólogos conservacionistas de obtener permisos para trabajar en tierras privadas. Hemos provisto lineamientos para que los investigadores lleven a cabo estudios exilosos en tierras privadas con el objeto de mejorar el acceso, la recolección de datos y las relaciones con los dueños de tierras privadas. También discutimos las limitantes que los investigadores enfrentan, tales como el diseño de estudios adecuados para trabajar en parcelas de propiedad privada. Dada la importancia de estas tierras para la conservación de la biodiversidad, se debería realizar un esfuerzo mayor para llevar a cabo investigaciones en tierras privadas. [source]

    Habitat Loss and Extinction in the Hotspots of Biodiversity

    Thomas M. Brooks
    None of these hotspots have more than one-third of their pristine habitat remaining. Historically, they covered 12% of the land's surface, but today their intact habitat covers only 1.4% of the land. As a result of this habitat loss, we expect many of the hotspot endemics to have either become extinct or,because much of the habitat loss is recent,to be threatened with extinction. We used World Conservation Union [ IUCN ] Red Lists to test this expectation. Overall, between one-half and two-thirds of all threatened plants and 57% of all threatened terrestrial vertebrates are hotspot endemics. For birds and mammals, in general, predictions of extinction in the hotspots based on habitat loss match numbers of species independently judged extinct or threatened. In two classes of hotspots the match is not as close. On oceanic islands, habitat loss underestimates extinction because introduced species have driven extinctions beyond those caused by habitat loss on these islands. In large hotspots, conversely, habitat loss overestimates extinction, suggesting scale dependence (this effect is also apparent for plants). For reptiles, amphibians, and plants, many fewer hotspot endemics are considered threatened or extinct than we would expect based on habitat loss. This mismatch is small in temperate hotspots, however, suggesting that many threatened endemic species in the poorly known tropical hotspots have yet to be included on the IUCN Red Lists. We then asked in which hotspots the consequences of further habitat loss (either absolute or given current rates of deforestation) would be most serious. Our results suggest that the Eastern Arc and Coastal Forests of Tanzania-Kenya, Philippines, and Polynesia-Micronesia can least afford to lose more habitat and that, if current deforestation rates continue, the Caribbean, Tropical Andes, Philippines, Mesoamerica, Sundaland, Indo-Burma, Madagascar, and Chocó,Darién,Western Ecuador will lose the most species in the near future. Without urgent conservation intervention, we face mass extinctions in the hotspots. Resumen: Casi la mitad del total de plantas vasculares del mundo y un tercio de los vertebrados terrestres son endémicos en 25 "áreas críticas" para la biodiversidad, cada una de las cuales tiene por lo menos 1500 especies de plantas endémicas. En ninguno de estos sitios permanece más de un tercio de su hábitat prístino. Históricamente, cubrían 12% de la superficie terrestre, pero en la actualidad su hábitat intacto cubre solo 1.4% del terreno. Como resultado de esta pérdida de hábitat esperamos que muchas de las especies endémicas a estos sitios estén extintas o , porque la pérdida de hábitat es reciente , se encuentren amenazadas de extinción. Utilizamos Listas Rojas de UICN para comprobar esta predicción. En general, entre la mitad y dos tercios de las plantas amenazadas y el 57% de los vertebrados terrestres amenazados son endémicos de áreas críticas para la biodiversidad. Para aves y mamíferos en general, las predicciones de extinción en las áreas críticas para la biodiversidad, basadas en la pérdida de hábitat, coinciden con el número de especies consideradas extintas o amenazadas independientemente. En dos clases de áreas críticas para la biodiversidad la coincidencia no es muy grande. En islas oceánicas, la pérdida de hábitat subestima la extinción porque las especies introducidas han causado más extinciones que las producidas por la reducción del hábitat. Por lo contrario, la pérdida de hábitat sobrestima la extinción en áreas críticas para la biodiversidad extensas, lo que sugiere una dependencia de escala (este efecto también es aparente para plantas). Para reptiles, anfibios y plantas mucho menos especies endémicas son consideradas amenazadas o extintas por pérdida de hábitat. Sin embargo, esta discordancia es pequeña en áreas críticas para la biodiversidad en zonas templadas templadas, lo que sugiere que muchas especies endémicas amenazadas en las poco conocidas áreas críticas para la biodiversidad en zonas tropicales aun están por incluirse en las Listas Rojas. Posteriormente nos preguntamos en que áreas críticas para la biodiversidad serían más serias las consecuencias de una mayor pérdida de hábitat (absoluta o con las tasas actuales de deforestación). Nuestros resultados sugieren que el Arco Oriental y los Bosques Costeros de Tanzania/Kenia, Filipinas, Polinesia/Micronesia no pueden soportar mayores pérdidas y que, si continúan las tasas de deforestación actuales, el Caribe, Andes Tropicales, Filipinas, Mesoamérica, Sundaland, Indo-Burma, Madagascar y Chocó/Darién/Ecuador Occidental perderán más especies en el futuro. Sin acciones urgentes de conservación, habrá extinciones masivas en las áreas críticas para la biodiversidad. [source]

    Countryside Biogeography of Moths in a Fragmented Landscape: Biodiversity in Native and Agricultural Habitats

    Taylor H. Ricketts
    We sampled moth species richness within a 227-ha forest fragment and in four surrounding agricultural habitats (coffee, shade coffee, pasture, and mixed farms) in southern Costa Rica. We found no significant difference in moth species richness or abundance among agricultural habitats, but agricultural sites within 1 km of the forest fragment had significantly higher richness and abundance than sites farther than 3.5 km from the fragment. In addition, species composition differed significantly between distance classes ( but not among agricultural habitats), with near sites more similar to forest than far sites. These results suggest that (1) different agricultural production regimes in this region may offer similar habitat elements and thus may not differ substantially in their capacities to support native moth populations and (2) that the majority of moths may utilize both native and agricultural habitats and move frequently between them, forming "halos" of relatively high species richness and abundance around forest fragments. Correlations between species richness and the amount of nearby forest cover, measured over circles of various radii around the sites, suggest that halos extend approximately 1.0,1.4 km from the forest edge. The extent of these halos likely differs among taxa and may influence their ability to survive in fragmented landscapes. Resumen: Los estudios de paisajes fragmentados, especialmente en los trópicos, tradicionalmente se han enfocado en los fragmentos nativos per se, ignorando las distribuciones de especies en áreas agrícolas circundantes o en otras áreas dominadas por humanos. Muestreamos la riqueza de polillas dentro de un fragmento de bosque de 227 hectáreas y en cuatro hábitats agrícolas (café, café con sombra, pastizal y campos mixtos) en el Sur de Costa Rica. Encontramos que no hubo diferencias significativas en la riqueza de especies o en la abundancia de polillas entre los hábitats agrícolas, sin embargo, los sitios agrícolas cercanos (<1 km) al fragmento de bosque tuvieron una riqueza de especies y abundancia significativamente mayor que las de los sitios lejanos (>3.5 km) al fragmento. Además, la composición de especies fue significativamente diferente entre las clases de distancia ( pero no entre los hábitats agrícolas), siendo los sitios cercanos más similares al bosque que los sitios retirados. Estos resultados sugieren que (1) los diferentes regímenes de producción agrícola en esta región pueden ofrecer elementos de hábitat similares y por lo tanto pueden no diferir substancialmente en lo que se refiere a su capacidad para sostener poblaciones de polillas nativas y (2) que la mayoría de las polillas pueden utilizar tanto hábitatsnativos como agrícolas y mover frecuentemente entre ellos, formando "halos" con una riqueza de especies y una abundancia relativamente altas alrededor de los fragmentos del bosque. Las correlaciones entre la riqueza de especies y la cantidad de cobertura forestal circundante, medida en círculos de diferente radio alrededor de los sitios de estudio, sugiere que los halos se extienden aproximadamente 1.0,1.4 km del borde del bosque. La extension de estos halos posiblemente difiere entre taxones y puede influenciar sus habilidades para sobrevivir en paisajes fragmentados. [source]

    Response Time of Wetland Biodiversity to Road Construction on Adjacent Lands

    C. Scot T Findlay
    Species loss is unlikely to occur immediately, however. Rather, populations of susceptible species are expected to decline gradually after road construction, with local extinction occurring sometime later. We document lags in wetland biodiversity loss in response to road construction by fitting regression models that express species richness of different taxa ( birds, mammals, plants, and herptiles) as a function of both current and historical road densities on adjacent lands. The proportion of variation in herptile and bird richness explained by road densities increased significantly when past densities were substituted for more current densities in multiple regression models. Moreover, for vascular plants, birds, and herptiles, there were significant negative effects of historical road densities when the most current densities were controlled statistically. Our results provide evidence that the full effects of road construction on wetland biodiversity may be undetectable in some taxa for decades. Such lags in response to changes in anthropogenic stress have important implications for land-use planning and environmental impact assessment. Resumen: La construcción de caminos puede resultar en significativas pérdidas de biodiversidad tanto a escala local como regional debido a la restricción de movimiento entre poblaciones, incremento de la mortalidad, fragmentación de hábitat y efectos de borde, invasión de especies exóticas o mayor acceso de humanos a hábitats silvestres, con lo cual se espera que se incrementen las tasas locales de extinción o disminuyan las tasas locales de recolonización. Sin embargo, es improbable que la pérdida de especies ocurra inmediatamente. Más bien, se espera que las poblaciones de especies susceptibles declinen gradualmente después de la construcción del camino, extinguiéndose localmente poco tiempo después. Documentamos la pérdida de biodiversidad en humedales como respuesta a la construcción de caminos ajustando modelos de regresión que expresan la riqueza de especies de diferentes taxa (aves, mamíferos, plantas, reptiles y anfibios) como una función de las densidades actual e histórica de los caminos en tierras adyacentes. La proporción de variación en anfibios, reptiles y aves incrementó significativamente cuando las densidades históricas fueron sustituidas por densidades actuales en los modelos de regresión múltiple. Más aun, hubo efectos negativos significativos de las densidades de caminos históricas para plantas vasculares, aves, anfibios y reptiles cuando las densidades actuales fueron estadísticamente controladas. Nuestros resultados proporcionan evidencia de que los efectos de la construcción de caminos sobre la biodiversidad de humedales pueden se indetectables para algunos taxa por décadas. Tales rezagos en la respuesta a cambios en el estrés antropogénico tienen implicaciones importantes en la planificación de uso del suelo y la evaluación de impacto ambiental. [source]


    ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to show that any process of benefit sharing that does not guarantee the representation and participation of women in the decision-making process, as well as in the distribution of benefits, contravenes a central demand of social justice. It is argued that women, particularly in developing countries, can be excluded from benefits derived from genetic research because of existing social structures that promote and maintain discrimination. The paper describes how the structural problem of gender-based inequity can impact on benefit sharing processes. At the same time, examples are given of poor women's ability to organise themselves and to achieve social benefits for entire communities. Relevant international guidelines (e.g. the Convention on Biodiversity) recognise the importance of women's contributions to the protection of biodiversity and thereby, implicitly, their right to a share of the benefits, but no mechanism is outlined on how to bring this about. The authors make a clear recommendation to ensure women's participation in benefit sharing negotiations by demanding seats at the negotiation table. [source]

    Biodiversity and distribution of epibiontic communities on Caridina ensifera (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from Lake Poso: comparison with another ancient lake system of Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    Gregorio Fernandez-Leborans
    Abstract Fernandez-Leborans, G. and von Rintelen, K. 2010. Biodiversity and distribution of epibiontic communities on Caridina ensifera (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from Lake Poso: comparison with another ancient lake system of Sulawesi (Indonesia). , Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 163,175 The epibiont communities of the shrimp Caridina ensifera, endemic to Lake Poso (Sulawesi, Indonesia), were analysed. Most of the epibiont species were ciliated protozoa belonging to three suctorian genera (Acineta, Podophrya and Spelaeophrya), three peritrich genera (Zoothamnium, Vorticella and Cothurnia), and a haptorid genus (Amphileptus). There was also a rotifer epibiont of the genus Embata. Epibionts were identified to species level. There were 14 to 1114 epibionts per shrimp. The distribution of the epibiont species on the surface of the basibiont was recorded, calculating the number on the different colonized individuals of C. ensifera. The most abundant species, Zoothamnium intermedium and Acineta sulawesiensis, were also the most widely distributed. There was a significant difference between the spatial distributions of the different epibiont species. The analysis of the number of the epibiont species throughout the anteroposterior axis of the shrimp showed a gradient from the anterior to the posterior end of the body. Data from Lake Poso were compared with those of the Malili lake system (Sulawesi), obtained from its endemic shrimp, Caridina lanceolata. Lake Poso had the highest mean diversity, while Lake Mahalona showed the highest maximum diversity. All lakes were correlated with respect to the mean number of epibionts on the anatomical units of the shrimp, which showed a similar general distribution. The distributions of the different epibiont species were compared between the lakes. The possible adaptations of the epibionts as well as the colonization patterns were discussed. From the statistical results and the analysis of the distributions, we propose that in these communities epibiont species have a pattern of colonization in which they follow a behaviour as a whole; each species has a differential distribution, with the species occupying the available substratum with the particular requirements of each functional group, but there is a trend towards maintaining an equilibrium among species and groups, compensating for diversity and number of individuals. In all lakes there was an epibiont distribution model comprising the maintenance of an anteroposterior axis gradient, which was supported by the fluctuation in diversity and number of individuals of the different functional groups of epibiont species. The functional role of the different groups of species seems to tend towards sustainability with little global variation among the lakes. [source]

    Plant species richness and environmental heterogeneity in a mountain landscape: effects of variability and spatial configuration

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2006
    Alexia Dufour
    The loss of biodiversity has become a matter of urgent concern and a better understanding of local drivers is crucial for conservation. Although environmental heterogeneity is recognized as an important determinant of biodiversity, this has rarely been tested using field data at management scale. We propose and provide evidence for the simple hypothesis that local species diversity is related to spatial environmental heterogeneity. Species partition the environment into habitats. Biodiversity is therefore expected to be influenced by two aspects of spatial heterogeneity: 1) the variability of environmental conditions, which will affect the number of types of habitat, and 2) the spatial configuration of habitats, which will affect the rates of ecological processes, such as dispersal or competition. Earlier, simulation experiments predicted that both aspects of heterogeneity will influence plant species richness at a particular site. For the first time, these predictions were tested for plant communities using field data, which we collected in a wooded pasture in the Swiss Jura mountains using a four-level hierarchical sampling design. Richness generally increased with increasing environmental variability and "roughness" (i.e. decreasing spatial aggregation). Effects occurred at all scales, but the nature of the effect changed with scale, suggesting a change in the underlying mechanisms, which will need to be taken into account if scaling up to larger landscapes. Although we found significant effects of environmental heterogeneity, other factors such as history could also be important determinants. If a relationship between environmental heterogeneity and species richness can be shown to be general, recently available high-resolution environmental data can be used to complement the assessment of patterns of local richness and improve the prediction of the effects of land use change based on mean site conditions or land use history. [source]

    Biodiversity in tropical agroforests and the ecological role of ants and ant diversity in predatory function

    Abstract 1.,Intensive agricultural practices drive biodiversity loss with potentially drastic consequences for ecosystem services. To advance conservation and production goals, agricultural practices should be compatible with biodiversity. Traditional or less intensive systems (i.e. with fewer agrochemicals, less mechanisation, more crop species) such as shaded coffee and cacao agroforests are highlighted for their ability to provide a refuge for biodiversity and may also enhance certain ecosystem functions (i.e. predation). 2.,Ants are an important predator group in tropical agroforestry systems. Generally, ant biodiversity declines with coffee and cacao intensification yet the literature lacks a summary of the known mechanisms for ant declines and how this diversity loss may affect the role of ants as predators. 3.,Here, how shaded coffee and cacao agroforestry systems protect biodiversity and may preserve related ecosystem functions is discussed in the context of ants as predators. Specifically, the relationships between biodiversity and predation, links between agriculture and conservation, patterns and mechanisms for ant diversity loss with agricultural intensification, importance of ants as control agents of pests and fungal diseases, and whether ant diversity may influence the functional role of ants as predators are addressed. Furthermore, because of the importance of homopteran-tending by ants in the ecological and agricultural literature, as well as to the success of ants as predators, the costs and benefits of promoting ants in agroforests are discussed. 4.,Especially where the diversity of ants and other predators is high, as in traditional agroforestry systems, both agroecosystem function and conservation goals will be advanced by biodiversity protection. [source]

    Streamlining ,search and destroy': cost-effective surveillance for invasive species management

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 7 2009
    Cindy E. Hauser
    Abstract Invasive species surveillance has typically been targeted to where the species is most likely to occur. However, spatially varying environmental characteristics and land uses may affect more than just the probability of occurrence. Biodiversity or economic value, and the ease of detection and control are also likely to vary. We incorporate these factors into a detection and treatment model of a low-density invader to determine the surveillance strategy that minimizes expected management costs. Sites with a high probability of invader occurrence and great benefits associated with detection warrant intensive surveillance; however, the optimum investment is a nonlinear function of these factors. Environments where the invader is relatively easy to detect are prioritized for surveillance, although only a moderate investment is necessary to ensure a high probability of detection. Intensive surveillance effort may be allocated to other sites if the probability of occurrence, budget and/or expected benefits is sufficiently high. [source]

    Separating the influence of resource ,availability' from resource ,imbalance' on productivity,diversity relationships

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 6 2009
    Bradley J. Cardinale
    Abstract One of the oldest and richest questions in biology is that of how species diversity is related to the availability of resources that limit the productivity of ecosystems. Researchers from a variety of disciplines have pursued this question from at least three different theoretical perspectives. Species energy theory has argued that the summed quantities of all resources influence species richness by controlling population sizes and the probability of stochastic extinction. Resource ratio theory has argued that the imbalance in the supply of two or more resources, relative to the stoichiometric needs of the competitors, can dictate the strength of competition and, in turn, the diversity of coexisting species. In contrast to these, the field of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning has argued that species diversity acts as an independent variable that controls how efficiently limited resources are utilized and converted into new tissue. Here we propose that all three of these fields give necessary, but not sufficient, conditions to explain productivity,diversity relationships (PDR) in nature. However, when taken collectively, these three paradigms suggest that PDR can be explained by interactions among four distinct, non-interchangeable variables: (i) the overall quantity of limiting resources, (ii) the stoichiometric ratios of different limiting resources, (iii) the summed biomass produced by a group of potential competitors and (iv) the richness of co-occurring species in a local competitive community. We detail a new multivariate hypothesis that outlines one way in which these four variables are directly and indirectly related to one another. We show how the predictions of this model can be fit to patterns of covariation relating the richness and biomass of lake phytoplankton to three biologically essential resources (N, P and light) in a large number of Norwegian lakes. [source]

    Understanding biodiversity effects on prey in multi-enemy systems

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 9 2006
    Paolo Casula
    Abstract Biodiversity,ecosystem functioning theory would predict that increasing natural enemy richness should enhance prey consumption rate due to functional complementarity of enemy species. However, several studies show that ecological interactions among natural enemies may result in complex effects of enemy diversity on prey consumption. Therefore, the challenge in understanding natural enemy diversity effects is to predict consumption rates of multiple enemies taking into account effects arising from patterns of prey use together with species interactions. Here, we show how complementary and redundant prey use patterns result in additive and saturating effects, respectively, and how ecological interactions such as phenotypic niche shifts, synergy and intraguild predation enlarge the range of outcomes to include null, synergistic and antagonistic effects. This study provides a simple theoretical framework that can be applied to experimental studies to infer the biological mechanisms underlying natural enemy diversity effects on prey. [source]

    Biodiversity and biocontrol: emergent impacts of a multi-enemy assemblage on pest suppression and crop yield in an agroecosystem

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 9 2003
    Bradley J. Cardinale
    Abstract The suppression of agricultural pests has often been proposed as an important service of natural enemy diversity, but few experiments have tested this assertion. In this study we present empirical evidence that increasing the richness of a particular guild of natural enemies can reduce the density of a widespread group of herbivorous pests and, in turn, increase the yield of an economically important crop. We performed an experiment in large field enclosures where we manipulated the presence/absence of three of the most important natural enemies (the coccinellid beetle Harmonia axyridis, the damsel bug Nabis sp., and the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi) of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) that feed on alfalfa (Medicago sativa). When all three enemy species were together, the population density of the pea aphid was suppressed more than could be predicted from the summed impact of each enemy species alone. As crop yield was negatively related to pea aphid density, there was a concomitant non-additive increase in the production of alfalfa in enclosures containing the more diverse enemy guild. This trophic cascade appeared to be influenced by an indirect interaction involving a second herbivore inhabiting the system , the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora. Data suggest that high relative densities of cowpea aphids inhibited parasitism of pea aphids by the specialist parasitoid, A. ervi. Therefore, when natural enemies were together and densities of cowpea aphids were reduced by generalist predators, parasitism of pea aphids increased. This interaction modification is similar to other types of indirect interactions among enemy species (e.g. predator,predator facilitation) that can enhance the suppression of agricultural pests. Results of our study, and those of others performed in agroecosystems, complement the broader debate over how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning by specifically focusing on systems that produce goods of immediate relevance to human society. [source]

    Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning at local and regional spatial scales

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2002
    Emily M. Bond
    Local niche complementarity among species (the partitioning of species based upon niche differentiation) is predicted to affect local ecosystem functioning positively. However, recent theory predicts that greater local diversity may hinder local ecosystem functioning when diversity is enhanced through source,sink dynamics. We suggest community assembly as a way to incorporate both the local and regional processes that determine biodiversity and its consequent effects on ecosystem functioning. From this, we propose a hump-shaped relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning at local scales, but a linear increase of functioning with diversity at regional scales due to regional complementarity. [source]

    A review of What is Biodiversity ?, by James MacLaurin and Kim Sterelny

    P. David Polly
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Biodiversity of Belgian groundwater fauna in relation to environmental conditions

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Summary 1. The Pleistocene glaciations during the Quaternary appear to have resulted in an impoverished groundwater fauna in northern Europe. Re-colonisation may have occurred either through long-distance dispersal from unglaciated southern areas or from local refugia. 2. The Belgian groundwater fauna was sampled at multiple sites, and its habitats characterised, to assess whether the composition of present-day stygobiotic assemblages can be attributed to either of these mechanisms. 3. A total of 202 sampling sites were selected in four hydrogeographic units of the Meuse River catchment. Sites were equally divided among the saturated and unsaturated zones of fractured aquifers (karst) and within the hyporheic and phreatic zones of porous aquifers. Seventeen environmental parameters were determined in parallel. 4. More than 140 species were recorded, including representatives of the Amphipoda, Cladocera, Copepoda, Hydrachnidia, Isopoda, Oligochaeta, Ostracoda, Mollusca, Syncarida and Nematoda. Thirty stygobiont species were identified, of which 10 species were new to the Belgian fauna, raising the total number of stygobiotic species in Belgium to 41. 5. The frequency of occurrences of stygobiotic species was always low, with 37% of the sampled sites lacking stygobionts. A few species were exclusive to one hydrological zone, although no statistically significant differences were detected in species richness at any of the four hierarchial levels considered (Meuse catchment = region, hydrogeographic units, aquifer type and hydrological zone). 6. Overall, results suggest that the stygobiotic fauna of Belgium is species-poor and mostly comprises widely distributed species with broad ecological tolerances. This supports the view that eurytopic species re-colonised the area by long-distance dispersal from refugia in southern Europe. The virtual absence of endemic species further suggests that the scenario of an ancient fauna that survived in local refugia is of minor importance. [source]

    Functional biodiversity of macroinvertebrate assemblages along major ecological gradients of boreal headwater streams

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2005
    JANI HEINOArticle first published online: 3 AUG 200
    Summary 1. Biodiversity,environment relationships are increasingly well-understood in the context of species richness and species composition, whereas other aspects of biodiversity, including variability in functional diversity (FD), have received rather little rigorous attention. For streams, most studies to date have examined either taxonomic assemblage patterns or have experimentally addressed the importance of species richness for ecosystem functioning. 2. I examined the relationships of the functional biodiversity of stream macroinvertebrates to major environmental and spatial gradients across 111 boreal headwater streams in Finland. Functional biodiversity encompassed functional richness (FR , the number of functional groups derived from a combination of functional feeding groups and habit trait groups), FD , the number of functional groups and division of individuals among these groups, and functional evenness (FE , the division of individuals among functional groups). Furthermore, functional structure (FS) comprised the composition and abundance of functional groups at each site. 3. FR increased with increasing pH, with additional variation related to moss cover, total nitrogen, water colour and substratum particle size. FD similarly increased with increasing pH and decreased with increasing canopy cover. FE decreased with increasing canopy cover and water colour. Significant variation in FS was attributable to pH, stream width, moss cover, substratum particle size, nitrogen, water colour with the dominant pattern in FS being related to the increase of shredder-sprawlers and the decrease of scraper-swimmers in acidic conditions. 4. In regression analysis and redundancy analysis, variation in functional biodiversity was not only related to local environmental factors, but a considerable proportion of variability was also attributable to spatial patterning of environmental variables and pure spatial gradients. For FR, 23.4% was related to pure environmental effects, 15.0% to shared environmental and spatial effects and 8.0% to spatial trends. For FD, 13.8% was attributable to environmental effects, 15.2% to shared environmental and spatial effects and 5% to spatial trends. For FE, 9.0% was related to environmental variables, 12.7% to shared effects of environmental and spatial variables and 4.5% to spatial variables. For FS, 13.5% was related to environmental effects, 16.9% to shared environmental and spatial effects and 15.4% to spatial trends. 5. Given that functional biodiversity should portray variability in ecosystem functioning, one might expect to find functionally rather differing ecosystems at the opposite ends of major environmental gradients (e.g. acidity, stream size). However, the degree to which variation in the functional biodiversity of stream macroinvertebrates truly portrays variability in ecosystem functioning is difficult to judge because species traits, such as feeding roles and habit traits, are themselves strongly affected by the habitat template. 6. If functional characteristics show strong responses to natural environmental gradients, they also are likely to do so to anthropogenic environmental changes, including changes in habitat structure, organic inputs and acidifying elements. However, given the considerable degree of spatial structure in functional biodiversity, one should not expect that only the local environment and anthropogenic changes therein are responsible for this variability. Rather, the spatial context, as well as natural variability along environmental gradients, should also be explicitly considered in applied research. [source]

    Biodiversity and resource use of larval chironomids in relation to environmental factors in a large river

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
    1.,Larval chironomids were examined at four sites on a cross-section of the River Danube in Austria between September 1995 and August 1996. The sites differed in hydraulics, sediment composition and habitat stability. 2.,Species,accumulation curves, showing the increase in number of species with increasing sampling effort, from three main channel sites were best described by a logarithmic model, suggesting that most of the species occurring at these sites were found. Data from a site connected to a backwater fitted best to a power model, indicating a random assemblage with additional species immigrating from the backwater area. 3.,Properties of the community were estimated using Jackknife techniques: species richness (range of mean values at the four sites: 32,91), H, diversity (1.5,2.3), evenness (0.23,0.28), spatial resource width (0.01,0.06), spatial resource overlap (0.13,0.20), spatial species aggregation (0.60,0.77), temporal community persistence (Kendal's correlation coefficient: 0.47,0.60) and beta-diversity (6.2,9.7). 4.,Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to relate the community properties and species abundance to environmental factors. Habitat stability was the major factor associated with community structure. Higher sediment turnover led to higher spatial aggregation and, consequently, a decrease in spatial resource width and overlap, and to a decline in larval density and species richness. 5.,Species-abundance patterns agreed well with the log-normal model. Moderate community persistence and stability of the streambed sediments suggest that the log-normal model may be a good descriptor for communities of intermediately disturbed habitats, like large rivers, rather than stable habitats. [source]

    Biodiversity and ecosystem function in soil

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    A. H. FITTER
    Summary 1Soils are one of the last great frontiers for biodiversity research and are home to an extraordinary range of microbial and animal groups. Biological activities in soils drive many of the key ecosystem processes that govern the global system, especially in the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. 2We cannot currently make firm statements about the scale of biodiversity in soils, or about the roles played by soil organisms in the transformations of organic materials that underlie those cycles. The recent UK Soil Biodiversity Programme (SBP) has brought a unique concentration of researchers to bear on a single soil in Scotland, and has generated a large amount of data concerning biodiversity, carbon flux and resilience in the soil ecosystem. 3One of the key discoveries of the SBP was the extreme diversity of small organisms: researchers in the programme identified over 100 species of bacteria, 350 protozoa, 140 nematodes and 24 distinct types of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Statistical analysis of these results suggests a much greater ,hidden diversity'. In contrast, there was no unusual richness in other organisms, such as higher fungi, mites, collembola and annelids. 4Stable-isotope (13C) technology was used to measure carbon fluxes and map the path of carbon through the food web. A novel finding was the rapidity with which carbon moves through the soil biota, revealing an extraordinarily dynamic soil ecosystem. 5The combination of taxonomic diversity and rapid carbon flux makes the soil ecosystem highly resistant to perturbation through either changing soil structure or removing selected groups of organisms. [source]

    Biodiversity, ecosystem function and plant traits in mature and immature plant communities

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    First page of article [source]

    Linking Spatial Pattern and Ecological Responses in Human-Modified Landscapes: The Effects of Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation on Biodiversity

    John A. Kupfer
    Studies of forest loss and fragmentation provide clear examples of the linkages between ecological pattern and process. Reductions in forest area lead to higher within-patch extinction rates, the eventual loss of area-sensitive species, and declines in species richness and diversity. Forest loss also results in increased isolation of remnants, lower among-patch immigration rates, and less ,rescue' from surrounding populations. Specific responses, however, are sometimes counterintuitive because they depend on life-history tradeoffs that influence population dynamics and species co-existence in heterogeneous landscapes, not just forest remnants. Thus, while fragmentation generally favours r-selected, generalist strategies, such as high dispersal and a wide niche breadth, ecological outcomes may be confounded by species-specific responses to conditions in the human-dominated matrix and the ways in which forest edges shape cross-landscape movements. Given that pressures on global forestlands continue to intensify due to growing population sizes, economic pressures, and needs for space and resources, successfully maintaining or restoring species will necessitate a combination of short- and long-term actions that address both habitat protection and restoration. Doing so will require an interdisciplinary approach that gives adequate attention to the manners by which forest loss and fragmentation affect population dynamics through changes in forest area, isolation, habitat quality, matrix properties, and edge effects as well as the synergistic interactions of fragmentation with climate change, human-altered disturbance regimes, species interactions and other drivers of species population declines. [source]

    Gender and Biodiversity: A New Approach to Linking Environment and Development

    Janet Henshall Momsen
    The 1992 Convention on Biological Conservation and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (1996) reflect the growing importance of biodiversity for environmental conservation and as a way of maintaining the genetic variety needed for plant breeding and providing new sources of medicines. More recently, agrobiodiversity has been seen as vital for food security in developing countries. This article considers the need to understand decision-making for biodiversity at the grassroots. To achieve this, gender roles, as influenced by gender divisions of labour in food production and the gendered use of different environmental spaces, have to be considered. Women's roles in seed selection and seed saving and use of wild plants for food and medicines play a major role in biodiversity conservation, but these roles are not unchanging and are increasingly influenced by global trade networks and geographical context. [source]

    Biodiversity on land and in the sea

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2001
    Michael J. Benton
    Abstract Life on land today is as much as 25 times as diverse as life in the sea. Paradoxically, this extraordinarily high level of continental biodiversity has been achieved in a shorter time and it occupies a much smaller area of the Earth's surface than does marine biodiversity. Raw palaeontological data suggest very different models for the diversification of life on land and in the sea. The well-studied marine fossil record appears to show evidence for an equilibrium model of diversification, with phases of rapid radiation, followed by plateaux that may indicate times of equilibrium diversity. The continental fossil record shows exponential diversification from the Silurian to the present. These differences appear to be real: the continental fossil record is unlikely to be so poor that all evidence for a high initial equilibrial diversity has been lost. In addition, it is not clear that the apparently equilibrial marine model is correct, since it is founded on studies at familial level. At species level, a logistic family-level curve probably breaks down to an exponential. The rocketing diversification rates of flowering plants, insects, and other land life are evidently hugely different from the more sluggish rates of diversification of life in the sea, perhaps as a result of greater endemism and habitat complexity on land. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]