Bill

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

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  • Selected Abstracts


    HOW DID THE 2003 PRESCRIPTION DRUG RE-IMPORTATION BILL PASS THE HOUSE?

    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 1 2006
    OMER GOKCEKUS
    We examine the major interest groups in the debate over allowing the re-importation of prescription drugs by utilizing a logit model and instrumental variables. Consistent with political support approach, the evidence suggests that Representatives are maximizing their electoral prospects: contributions from pharmaceutical manufacturers shrink the probability of voting for the bill; and Representatives are sensitive to their constituencies , employees of pharmaceutical manufacturing and senior citizens. Representatives' gender and ideology regarding free trade and subsidies are also determining factors. However, the decision was, by and large, a partisan one: party affiliation was the most important factor in passing the bill. [source]


    THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD AND THE NEED FOR ITS INCORPORATION INTO A BILL OF RIGHTS

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
    Hon. Alastair Nicholson
    In this article I discuss the failure of most democratic countries to accept or properly implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, despite, except in the case of the United States, having ratified it. I consider the domestic implementation of treaties. I discuss, from an Australian perspective, that country's failure to enact a Bill of Rights and argue that children in Australia have suffered as a result. I also discuss judicial approaches to international law and compare the situation in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand and suggest that even in those countries that do have a Bill of Rights, it is not oriented toward children and therefore does not properly recognize their rights. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS AND MILITARY SERVICE: AN ANALYSIS OF ENLISTMENT, REENLISTMENT, AND VETERANS' BENEFIT USAGE 1991,2005,

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2010
    CURTIS J. SIMON
    Montgomery GI Bill (MGIB) educational benefits are a prime recruiting tool in today's all-volunteer military. This paper studies the effects of changes in education benefits using data of the period 1990,2005. Higher benefits lead to higher separation due to both pure incentive effects and by attracting more college-oriented youth into military service. We deal with potential selection issues by distinguishing between anticipated and unanticipated benefit changes. Higher education benefits are associated with higher separation from the Army and Air Force, but not the other services. A $10,000 increase in MGIB benefits is estimated to increase usage by about 5 percentage points, but the duration of usage is estimated to be insensitive to benefit levels. (JEL H52, I21, J24) [source]


    Legislation to institutionalize resources for tobacco control: the 1987 Victorian Tobacco Act

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
    Ron Borland
    ABSTRACT Aim To describe the process surrounding the creation of the first organization in the world to be funded from an earmarked tax on tobacco products, the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth), and to outline briefly its subsequent history. Description The genesis of VicHealth came from an interest of the Minister for Health in the Victorian State Government to address the tobacco problem, and the strategic capacity of Dr Nigel Gray from the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria to provide a vehicle and help the government to muster support for its implementation. Success involved working with government to construct a Bill it was happy with and then working with the community to support the implementation and to counter industry attempts to derail it. The successful Bill led to the creation of VicHealth. VicHealth has played a creative and important role in promoting health not only in Victoria (Australia), but has been a stimulus for similar initiatives in other parts of the world. Conclusions Enacting novel advances in public policy is made easier when there is a creative alliance between advocates outside government working closely with governments to develop a proposal that is politically achievable and then to work together to sell it. Health promotion agencies, once established, can play an important role in advancing issues like tobacco control. [source]


    Assessing human germ-cell mutagenesis in the Postgenome Era: A celebration of the legacy of William Lawson (Bill) Russell,

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 2 2007
    Andrew J. Wyrobek
    Abstract Birth defects, de novo genetic diseases, and chromosomal abnormality syndromes occur in ,5% of all live births, and affected children suffer from a broad range of lifelong health consequences. Despite the social and medical impact of these defects, and the 8 decades of research in animal systems that have identified numerous germ-cell mutagens, no human germ-cell mutagen has been confirmed to date. There is now a growing consensus that the inability to detect human germ-cell mutagens is due to technological limitations in the detection of random mutations rather than biological differences between animal and human susceptibility. A multidisciplinary workshop responding to this challenge convened at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the applicability of an emerging repertoire of genomic technologies to studies of human germ-cell mutagenesis. Workshop participants recommended large-scale human germ-cell mutation studies be conducted using samples from donors with high-dose exposures, such as cancer survivors. Within this high-risk cohort, parents and children could be evaluated for heritable changes in (a) DNA sequence and chromosomal structure, (b) repeat sequences and minisatellites, and (c) global gene expression profiles and pathways. Participants also advocated the establishment of a bio-bank of human tissue samples from donors with well-characterized exposure, including medical and reproductive histories. This mutational resource could support large-scale, multiple-endpoint studies. Additional studies could involve the examination of transgenerational effects associated with changes in imprinting and methylation patterns, nucleotide repeats, and mitochondrial DNA mutations. The further development of animal models and the integration of these with human studies are necessary to provide molecular insights into the mechanisms of germ-cell mutations and to identify prevention strategies. Furthermore, scientific specialty groups should be convened to review and prioritize the evidence for germ-cell mutagenicity from common environmental, occupational, medical, and lifestyle exposures. Workshop attendees agreed on the need for a full-scale assault to address key fundamental questions in human germ-cell environmental mutagenesis. These include, but are not limited to, the following: Do human germ-cell mutagens exist? What are the risks to future generations? Are some parents at higher risk than others for acquiring and transmitting germ-cell mutations? Obtaining answers to these, and other critical questions, will require strong support from relevant funding agencies, in addition to the engagement of scientists outside the fields of genomics and germ-cell mutagenesis. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Toward a US Shift from Agricultural to Rural Development Policy: Forces of Challenge and Change Auf einen Wechsel von der US-Agrarpolitik zu einer Politik des ländlichen Raums hinarbeiten: Die Triebkräfte der Herausforderung und des Wandels Vers une transition des politiques agricoles vers des politiques de développement rural aux États-Unis: Les forces du défi et du changement

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 1 2008
    Charles W. Fluharty
    Toward a US Shift from Agricultural to Rural Development Policy: Forces of Challenge and Change On the 5th of November 2007, Iowa Senator Tom Harkin, Chairman of the US Senate Committee on Agriculture, Forestry and Nutrition, in opening the floor debate on the 2007 Farm Bill, urged a new US commitment to rural policy, keeping in mind that nearly 85 per cent of total farm household income is now generated off-farm. Recent institutional developments, moreover, evidence the success of a decade-long effort to increase focus on the rural development Title of the Farm Bill. One result was the formation of the Alliance for Sensible Agriculture Policies (ASAP), a loose federation of over 30 national organizations, representing the entire political spectrum. It remains highly active in support of Farm Bill reform. Currently, the Senate Bill contains a US$ 400 million increase in mandatory rural development funding. As we move toward an end-game, however, members of both the Senate and the House of Representatives will face the unbridled power of commodity organizations. It is likely that this will again overwhelm public sentiment and wise public choice. Despite overwhelming odds, a new commitment to a more innovative rural policy framework is emerging in the United States. I believe that this Farm Bill will ultimately be viewed as the beginning of a landscape-changing legislative framework for rural people and places in America. Vers une transition des politiques agricoles vers des politiques de développement rural aux États-Unis: Les forces du défi et du changement Le 5 novembre 2007, le Sénateur de l'Iowa Tom Harkin, Président du Comité du Sénat des États-Unis sur l'Agriculture, la Forêt et la Nutrition, en ouverture du débat sur la loi agricole 2007, a appeléà un nouvel engagement pour la politique rurale, en gardant à l'esprit que presque 85 pour cent du revenu total des ménages agricoles provient de sources non agricoles. En outre, les évolutions institutionnelles récentes on mis en évidence les succès d'une décennie d'efforts pour attirer l'attention sur le Titre "développement rural" de la loi agricole. Un résultat a été la formation d'une alliance pour des politiques agricoles raisonnables (Alliance for Sensible Agriculture Policies, ASAP), une fédération large de plus de 30 organisations nationales représentant la totalité du spectre politique. Elle reste très active pour soutenir la réforme de la loi agricole. A l'heure actuelle, la loi proposée par le Sénat prévoit une hausse de 400 millions de dollars des fonds obligatoirement destinés au développement rural. Cependant, à mesure que l'on s'approche de la décision finale, les membres du Sénat et de la Chambre des représentants seront confrontés au pouvoir sans frein des organisations de soutien des produits agricoles. Il est probable que cela va de nouveau dominer les sentiments du public et les choix sensés en matière d'action. En dépit des conditions dominantes, émerge aux États-Unis un nouvel engagement pour un cadre plus innovant pour les politiques de développement rural,.Je crois que cette loi agricole sera considérée comme un point d'inflexion dans le paysage pour les populations et les territoires ruraux aux États-Unis. Auf einen Wechsel von der US-Agrarpolitik zu einer Politik des ländlichen Raums hinarbeiten: Die Triebkräfte der Herausforderung und des Wandels Am 5. November 2007 forderte Tom Harkin, US-Senator aus dem Bundesstaat Iowa und Vorsitzender des Komitees für Landwirtschaft, Forstwirtschaft und Ernährung (US Senate Committee on Agriculture, Forestry and Nutrition), ein größeres Engagement der USA im Hinblick auf die Politik des ländlichen Raums, als er die Plenardebatte über das Landwirtschaftsgesetz von 2007 eröffnete. Dabei hatte er vor Augen, dass mittlerweile beinahe 85 Prozent des gesamten Haushaltseinkommens der landwirtschaftlichen Betriebe aus außerlandwirtschaftlichen Aktivitäten stammt. Zudem belegen die jüngsten institutionellen Entwicklungen den Erfolg der jahrzehntelangen Bemühungen, die Aufmerksamkeit auf den Titel über die Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums im Landwirtschaftsgesetz zu lenken. Als Folge dessen wurde u.a. die Allianz für vernünftige Agrarpolitikmaßnahmen (Alliance for Sensible Agriculture Policies, ASAP) ins Leben gerufen, ein freier Verband von über 30 nationalen Organisationen, die das gesamte politische Spektrum vertreten. Die Allianz setzt sich immer noch sehr für die Reform des Landwirtschaftsgesetzes ein. Derzeit sieht das Gesetz im Senat eine Budgeterhöhung von $ 400 Millionen zur Finanzierung der verbindlichen Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums vor. Da wir jedoch auf die Endphase zusteuern, werden sowohl Mitglieder des Senats als auch des Abgeordnetenhauses der ungezügelten Macht der Rohstofforganisationen gegenüberstehen. Wahrscheinlich wird dies wieder einmal die Stimmung und die weise Entscheidung der Öffentlichkeit maßgeblich beeinflussen. Ungeachtet dessen entwickelt sich in den USA zurzeit ein neues Engagement hin zu einem innovativeren Rahmenprogramm in Bezug auf die Politik des ländlichen Raums. Ich bin der Ansicht, dass dieses Landwirtschaftsgesetz der Landbevölkerung als Zeitpunkt des Landschaftswechsels in Erinnerung bleiben wird. [source]


    THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD AND THE NEED FOR ITS INCORPORATION INTO A BILL OF RIGHTS

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
    Hon. Alastair Nicholson
    In this article I discuss the failure of most democratic countries to accept or properly implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, despite, except in the case of the United States, having ratified it. I consider the domestic implementation of treaties. I discuss, from an Australian perspective, that country's failure to enact a Bill of Rights and argue that children in Australia have suffered as a result. I also discuss judicial approaches to international law and compare the situation in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand and suggest that even in those countries that do have a Bill of Rights, it is not oriented toward children and therefore does not properly recognize their rights. [source]


    Rethinking Law and Violence: The Domestic Violence (Prevention) Bill in India, 2002

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 3 2004
    Rajeswari Sunder Rajan
    This essay focuses on the controversy generated by recent proposed legislation on domestic violence in India. An alternative draft bill on domestic violence prepared by the feminist legal NGO, the Lawyers' Collective, and supported by women's groups nationally, includes a demand that victims of domestic violence (usually wives) be permitted by law to continue to occupy the domestic home, a demand that the Government bill has refused to include. This demand is theoretically informed by a politics of space. Bodies and space are linked, to the extent that each is an abstraction without the concept of the other to ground it. The feminist legal proposal challenges property-as-absolute-(male) ownership by conceptualising the household as, instead, shared domestic space. The proposal does not dissimulate common sense , it is conscious of being radical, in part at least because it demystifies the ,domestic' as an ideological construct and offers it instead realistically and minimally as simply an alternative to destitution. The recognition that there are no support structures for dependant women outside the family (such as, for example, state-sponsored welfare institutions), so that destitution can be both sudden and real for women of any class and circumstances, has led to the conceptualisation of a law that formulates a right to shared space as one that makes no claim to shared ownership , while at the same time questioning the other's absolute property right. Despite the limited nature of the claim it makes, this proposal has been viewed as threatening by Indian law-makers. [source]


    Ideology, Power Orientation and Policy Drag: Explaining the Elite Politics of Britain's Bill of Rights Debate

    GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION, Issue 1 2009
    David Erdos
    This article argues that three factors have framed elite political debate and outcomes on a Bill of Rights in Britain , the degree of commitment to an ideology of social liberalism, the executive/non-executive power orientation of key actors and the phenomenon of policy drag. These factors explain not only the overall historical contours of political debate but also (1) Labour's ,aversive' conversion to the Bill of Rights agenda and passage of the Human Rights Act (1998); and (2) the Conservatives' more positive recent attitude to the Bill of Rights agenda. [source]


    Organized International Asylum-Seeker Networks: Formation and Utilization by Chinese Students1

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
    Jia Gao
    This article examines the formation and role of international networks formed by Chinese students living in the West in the late 1980s and early 1990s as part of their efforts to obtain the right to remain in Western countries in the immediate aftermath of the Tiananmen Square violence of June 4, 1989. Various forms of migrant social networks have been a research focus in international refugee and migration studies, but international networks formed by asylum seekers themselves, and their role in asylum-seeking processes, have been largely ignored. This article is based on a multi-method comparative study of Chinese students living in Australia and the United States at the time. Their experience provides data for examining and conceptualizing the role of organized international asylum-seeker networks in the asylum-seeking process. The analysis focuses on Chinese student lobbying in 1989, led by an independent Chinese student union, which helped "the Pelosi Bill" to be passed by the U.S. Congress. The main strategies adopted by Chinese students in the United States and Australia, as well as their internationally coordinated actions, are compared. Also examined is the role of two politicized international Chinese student organizations, the Chinese Alliance for Democracy and the Federation for Democratic China, in assisting students with obtaining residence. [source]


    NIGERIA: Appropriation Bill Passed

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 3 2010
    Article first published online: 4 MAY 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Nigeria: Proposed Petroleum Industry Bill

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 12 2010
    Article first published online: 9 FEB 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ZIMBABWE: Reserve Bank Amendment Bill

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 11 2010
    Article first published online: 18 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Media presentation of the mental health bill and representations of mental health problems

    JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Juliet L. H. Foster
    Abstract This paper discusses the findings of a study that examined the way in which the Mental Health Bill of June 2002 was presented in the British national and local media over a 3-year period. A Lexis Nexis search yielded 256 articles, which were then analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. Overall, and perhaps contrary to what might have been expected given previous studies' conclusions regarding the media's negative portrayal of mental ill health, most articles tended to present a negative view of the Bill as unnecessarily repressive, and consequently were more sympathetic towards mental heath service clients, although this was not the case for tabloid articles. However, this paper then considers the more implicit representations found within the articles. It focuses particularly on the continued linking of mental ill health and violence, and also on the way in which the mental health service user might be portrayed as passive and rather pitiful as an alternative to violent and dangerous. It is suggested that the continued use of such images may stem from the fact that mental health problems have long been constructed as ,Other', and are therefore deeply engrained in our society. The implications of this for anti-stigma campaigns are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Interpreting the Bill of Rights and the Nature of Federalism: Barron v. City of Baltimore

    JOURNAL OF SUPREME COURT HISTORY, Issue 3 2007
    BRENDAN J. DOHERTY
    In 1833, a mere forty-five years after the Constitution of the United States took effect, the young republic was striving to establish the form its constitutional government would take. For while the Constitution and its first ten amendments had set forth many principles regarding the rights of individual citizens with respect to the actions of their government, the precise nature of these relations would be determined in large part by U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall. [source]


    Report of the Council for the session 2006,2007

    JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES A (STATISTICS IN SOCIETY), Issue 4 2007
    Council Report
    President's foreword., This year's annual report shows another very successful year for the Society. The range of the Society's new initiatives bears testament to our vigour and to the energy and enthusiasm of Fellows and staff. It is difficult to summarize all of these but I offer a brief overview of some of the highlights. This year we have awarded the first annual prize for ,Statistical excellence in journalism'. It is too easy to bemoan the general quality of coverage of statistical issues in the press and other media. But simply moaning does not improve the situation. As a positive step, on the instigation of Sheila Bird and Andrew Garratt, the Society decided to initiate an award for the best journalistic coverage of a statistical issue. This year first prize was awarded to Ben Goldacre of The Guardian. I hope that these annual awards will offer a positive focus on good coverage and help us to promote best practice. This year, also, we have set up the Professional Development Centre to act as a focus for statistical training both for statisticians and for others who use statistical methods as part of their work. It thus reflects our support for continuing professional development for our Fellows and at the same time provides outreach to members of the statistical user community who want to improve their statistical skills. We welcome Nicola Bright as the Director of the Centre and wish her every success. I am pleased to say that it is not just the Society centrally that has taken new activities this year. The Manchester Local Group have initiated a prize for final year undergraduates from any higher education institute in the north-west. At a time when there are concerns about the number of well-qualified graduates coming into the statistics profession this seems an excellent way to attract the attention of final year undergraduates. I wish this initiative every success. Another development to which the Society has contributed is the Higher Education Funding Council for England project ,more maths grads' which is designed to promote participation in undergraduate degrees in the mathematical sciences. A good supply of mathematically trained graduates is essential to the UK economy in general and to the health of the statistics discipline in particular. It is good that the Society is involved in practical developments that are aimed at increasing participation. The final new initiative that I shall draw attention to is the ,first-in-man' report which is concerned with the statistical design of drug trials aimed at testing novel treatment types. The working party was set up as a result of the adverse reactions suffered by healthy volunteers to a first-in-man trial of monoclonal antibodies and who were subsequently admitted to Northwick Park hospital. The report makes a series of recommendations about the design of such trials and will, I hope, contribute to the safety of future trials. I would like to thank Stephen Senn and the members of the working party for their considerable efforts. As well as these new initiatives there were, of course, many other continuing activities that are noteworthy. The annual conference in Belfast was a great success with many lively sessions and a good number of participants. In particular it was good to see a high number of young statisticians participating in the conference, reflecting the continuing impact of the Young Statisticians Forum on which I commented in the previous annual report. Another continuing activity for the Society is the statistical legislation going through Parliament as I write. The Society has long campaigned for legislation for official statistics. The issue now is to try to get good legislation which will have the required effect and will help the Government Statistical Service and other statistical producers to produce high quality, authoritative statistics in an environment that commands public confidence. As first published, the Society was disappointed with the Bill but we have worked to build support for amendments that, in our view, are essential. Time alone will tell how effective the final legislation will be in meeting our aims. I would like to draw attention to the success of the Membership Services team. We, although with other statistical Societies, have experienced a decline in membership in recent years but the team have turned this round. They are helping to recruit new Fellows and to retain the commitment of existing Fellows. This is a fine achievement and I would like to thank Nicola Emmerson, Ed Swires-Hennessy and the whole team. Finally we have, at last, reached a conclusion in our dealings with the Privy Council and will implement the second phase of constitutional changes. In future our business year, financial year and year for elected appointments will all coincide on a calendar year basis. There will be transitional arrangements but in due course all our administrative arrangements will coincide and will improve efficiency and co-ordination. This has been a long journey, steered effectively by our Director General, Ivor Goddard, and I congratulate him for a successful outcome on your behalf. As you read this report, I hope that you will share my impression of a Society that is lively and spawning many new programmes. We have a dual commitment: to the well-being of statistics as a discipline and to the promotion of statistical understanding and practice to the benefit of Society at large. In both respects I feel that the Society is in good health. This is due to the unstinting efforts of a large number of individual volunteers, including in particular our Honorary Officers and also, of course, the staff at Errol Street. On behalf of all Fellows, I wish to express my thanks to everyone involved. Tim Holt [source]


    The common law and international law , a dynamic contemporary dialogue

    LEGAL STUDIES, Issue 1 2010
    Hon Michael Kirby AC CMG
    International law, as expressed in treaties and in customary law, is of growing importance in municipal jurisdictions throughout the world. Some barriers to the use of international law in national courts are identified. Occasionally, they include scepticism and even hostility about this body of law. However, the past 60 years have witnessed a remarkable change in judicial attitudes in final courts in most Commonwealth countries. In the UK, the impact of Europe has helped create an ,incoming tide'. In South Africa, India and Canada, constitutional provisions have stimulated the change. New Zealand is now affected by its Bill of Rights Act. But, in Australia, none of these forces was available and decisional authority adhered for decades to strict dualism. The changing pace of utilisation of international law in the UK and Australia are described. In the UK, the Human Rights Act 1998 now consolidates a trend already happening in the courts. In Australia, the Mabo decision in 1992 effectively endorsed the Bangalore Principles on the municipal application of international human rights norms. This paper describes the contrasting case-law. In the foregoing countries, it concludes with a response to criticisms of judicial utilisation of international law and a suggestion of the proper jurisprudential basis that can be identified to sustain a judicial process that is now well advanced in the countries surveyed. [source]


    Language, history and the nation: an historical approach to evaluating language and cultural claims

    NATIONS AND NATIONALISM, Issue 2 2008
    VICKI SPENCER
    ABSTRACT. In contrast to the abstract commitment to individual rights found in liberal critics of Bill 101 and the equally ahistorical approach of multicultural theorists like Bhikhu Parekh, this paper proposes that the particular historical circumstances surrounding the current minority status of different groups is crucial in evaluating the legitimacy of one cultural group to promote its cultural needs over another group within existing states. When the culture of a group residing within a particular state is secure in a neighbouring jurisdiction, the issue at stake is not necessarily the survival of a unique culture but the cultural needs of particular individuals. It does not follow that they have no legitimate claims against the state. However, in examining the language policies in Quebec and the newly independent Baltic states, it is argued that they are different in kind to the rights due to long-standing communities struggling for linguistic survival. [source]


    Barack and Slumdog Millionaire

    NEW PERSPECTIVES QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2009
    NATHAN GARDELS
    President Barack Obama pledged in his first TV interview,with the Arab satellite channel Al Arabiya,that America under his watch would "listen with respect and not dictate" to the world. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has further announced that this country will no longer just throw around its military might but will pursue a "smart power" approach by tempering the use of hard weaponry with the "soft power" of persuasion and cultural attraction. Or, as Madame Secretary's husband Bill has put it, America will now lead through the power of example instead of the example of power. The first exceedingly complex test of Obama's smart power strategy will be how to end George W. Bush's misguided "war on terror" in Afghanistan and Pakistan, keeping al-Qaida at bay without being swallowed by the quagmire of tribal politics. An array of experts from New Delhi to Paris offers their views in this section. [source]


    A Parliamentary Victory: The British Labour Party and Irish Republican Deportees, 1923

    PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY, Issue 2 2010
    IVAN GIBBONS
    After the 1918 general election the Labour Party became the official opposition party at Westminster. In response to the growing Irish republican campaign to establish an independent Irish state the Labour Party had to re-assess its relationship with Irish nationalism. The Labour Party was now acutely conscious that it was on the verge of forming a government and was concerned to be seen by the British electorate as a responsible, moderate and patriotic government-in-waiting. Although it had traditionally supported Irish demands for home rule and was vehemently opposed to the partition of Ireland, the Labour Party became increasingly wary of any closer relationship with extreme Irish nationalism which it believed would only damage its rapidly improving electoral prospects. Therefore the Labour Party supported the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 even though it underpinned the partition of Ireland and sought to distance itself from any association with Irish republicanism as the new Irish Free State drifted into civil war. In early 1923 the Parliamentary Labour Party (PLP) alighted upon the new issue of the arrest and deportation without trial, to the Irish Free State, of Irish republicans living in Britain who were obviously British citizens. The attraction of this campaign for the Labour Party was that it enabled the party to portray itself as the defender of Irish people living in Britain without having to take sides in the Irish civil war. In addition the Labour Party was able to present itself as the protector of civil liberties in Britain against the excesses of an overweening and authoritarian Conservative government. One of the main reasons the issue was progressed so energetically on the floor of the House by the new PLP was because it now contained many Independent Labour Party (ILP) ,Red Clydesiders' who themselves had been interned without trial during the First World War. Through brilliant and astute use of parliamentary tactics Bonar Law's Conservative government was forced into an embarrassing climb-down which required the cobbling together of an Indemnity Bill which gave tory ministers retrospective legal protection for having exceeded their authority. By any standard, it was a major achievement by a novice opposition party. It enhanced the party's reputation and its growing sophistication in the use of parliamentary tactics benefited it electorally at the next election which led to the first Labour government. [source]


    Chapter 7.,The Lords, the Coalition and the India Bill, 1780,4

    PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY, Issue 2009
    Article first published online: 11 SEP 200
    First page of article [source]


    The Postponement of the Peerage Bill in April 1719 Revisited,

    PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY, Issue 2 2005
    CLYVE JONES
    First page of article [source]


    Advocates in the Age of Jazz: Women and the Campaign for the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill

    PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 3 2003
    Mary Jane Brown
    More than three thousand people, predominantly African American males, were lynched in the United States between 1892 and 1940. Occurring mostly in the South, lynching was a means that white southerners used to enforce white supremacy and prevent African Americans from achieving political, social, and economic gains after the Civil War ended slavery. White southerners declared that the threat of black men raping white women necessitated lynching. They further argued that inaction by the courts and the black community's shielding of criminals justified mob action, theories that gained wide acceptance in the South and that were commonly accepted in the North as well. In the 1890s, black women, led by anti-lynching advocate Ida B. Wells-Barnett, began a protest against lynching that swelled into a sizable movement. Under Wells-Barnett's leadership, anti-lynching activists dismantled the theory of white women's protection and formulated a strategy of investigation and exposure that became the template for future anti-lynching drives. When the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was founded in 1909, it made anti-lynching a priority and drew black and white women to its anti-lynching battle. By the 1920s, women 's anti-lynching activity had become essential to the NAACP's drive for federal anti-lynching legislation and its campaign for passage of the Dyer bill. NAACP secretary Walter White's reliance on women increased throughout the 1920s, and women, courted both as voters and moral authorities, achieved a new level of importance in social movements and drives for legislation. This marked the beginning of the NAACP's twenty-year struggle for federal anti-lynching legislation, a campaign in which black and white women worked cooperatively and were essential to the campaign for the Dyer bill. [source]


    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 23-24 2007
    Article first published online: 8 JAN 200
    Cervical cancer risk falls after COC use ends Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are associated with a slight increase in the risk of cervical cancer but this diminishes with time after use ends, an international study has shown (Lancet 2007;370:1609,21). Analysis of data for 16 573 women with and 35 509 women without cervical cancer confirmed that using a COC for 10 years between the ages of 20 and 30 increases the incidence of invasive cervical cancer from 3.8 to 4.5 per 1000 by age 50. However, the excess risk disappears 10 years after cessation of use. , A new analysis of the US Nurses' Health Study suggests that protection against ovarian cancer does not persist beyond 20 years after cessation of COC use. This study also showed that tubal ligation is associated with reduced risk of ovarian cancer (Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166;894,901). Pharmaceutical services fund moves to PCTs The ,global sum' that provides central funding for NHS pharmaceutical services is being shifted to PCTs. The Government has included legislation for the change in the recent Health and Social Care Bill. The fund pays the fees and allowances for pharmacy contractors and appliance contractors. The Government says this is a ,natural progression and in keeping with moves to devolve NHS funds to the frontline' that will enable PCTs to manage pharmacy services better by ,encouraging best prescribing practice'. Fewer fluoroquinolones in the community Restricting prescribing of fluoroquinolone antibacterials does not increase hospital admissions for infection among older people, say Canadian researchers (Am J Med 2007;120:893,900). Their analysis of an Ontario medical database shows that, in a community where fluoroquinolones were the most widely prescribed antibacterials, a one-third reduction in prescribing was not followed by an increase in hospital admissions for infectious episodes in the over,65s. On the contrary, there was a 32 per cent reduction in admissions for gastrointestinal conditions. FDA reports increased TB risk with infliximab The US Food and Drug Administration has published an analysis of cases of TB associated with infliximab (Remicade) detected via its spontaneous adverse event reporting scheme (Ann Intern Med 2007;147: 699,702). In 2001 the FDA placed a warning about the risk of TB on product labelling for infliximab and advised testing for TB before initiating treatment. This analysis of 130 cases of TB since reported in patients treated with infliximab found that 45 per cent had developed extra-pulmonary disease; risk factors included use of immunosuppressants (including methotrexate), a history of TB and time spent in an endemic area. Of 67 cases in which treatment was initiated after the warning was issued, 34 with a negative tuberculin skin test developed TB after receiving infliximab. MHRA announces anticounterfeit strategy The UK is a transit point, distribution hub and end-user of counterfeit medicines, says the MHRA in its first anti-counterfeiting strategy (www.mhra.gov.uk). Counterfeits have been detected in the legitimate supply chain with increasing frequency since 2004, resulting in nine batch recalls and a further five incidents detected at wholesale level. The MHRA's proposed approach includes: communication to raise awareness of the risk and facilitate reporting, collaboration with the WHO, the industry and law enforcement agencies, and targeted surveillance, prosecution and regulation. Evidence lacking for choosing DMARD There is insufficient evidence to choose one DMARD or biological agent over another in patients with RA, US investigators say (www.annals.org/cgi/content/abstract/0000605,20080115000192v1). Their systematic review of meta-analyses and intervention and observational trials found no evidence of differences among DMARDs or anti-TNF agents. Mono-therapy with an anti-TNF agent was associated with superior radiographic but not clinical outcomes; methotrexate plus an anti-TNF agent was superior in clinical and functional terms to either drug given alone. Be alert to psychiatric ADRs with rimonabant Clinicians should remain alert for the development of anxiety, depression and an increased risk of suicide with rimonabant (Acomplia), say Danish investigators (Lancet 2007;370:1706,13). Their meta-analysis of four randomised trials involving a total of 4105 patients showed that rimonabant was associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events (odds ratio 1.4; number needed to harm, NNH, 59), including a 2.5,fold increased risk of depression (NNH 49) and a threefold increased risk of anxiety (NNH 166). Following a warning from the FDA of an increased risk of suicide with rimonabant, the authors say their findings indicate a need for ,increased alertness by physicians to these potentially severe psychiatric adverse reactions'. New strategy for NHS medicines information The UK Medicines Information Service (www.ukmi.nhs.uk) has published its new management strategy setting out how it will respond to recent developments in the NHS. Developments include greater access to information for patients, support for nontraditional prescribers and new commissioning arrangements. New antiretroviral Maraviroc (Celsentri) is the first CCR5 antagonist to be introduced for the treatment of HIV infection. CCR5 is one of two co-receptors to which the HIV virus must attach to achieve cell entry. Maraviroc is licensed for use by treatment-experienced patients in whom only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 is detectable. The recommended dose ranges from 150 to 600mg twice daily depending on interactions with concurrent medication. Dimeticone superior Dimeticone 4 per cent lotion (Hedrin) is superior to malathion 0.5 per cent in the eradication of head lice, a UK study in 58 children and 15 adults has shown (PLoS ONE 2007;2: e1127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. 0001127). Two applications of dimeticone lotion one week apart cleared active infestation in 70 per cent of participants compared with 33 per cent in those who used a single application of malathion. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd. [source]


    Evaluating the Pluses and Minuses of Custody: Sentencing Reform in England and Wales

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 3 2003
    Julian V. Roberts
    This article explores three sanctions contained in the 2002 Criminal Justice Bill which follows upon the 2002 white paper Justice for All. The Bill creates a Sentencing Guidelines Council to develop sentencing guidelines, and defines three dispositions applicable to sentences of imprisonment under twelve months: ,Custody Plus', the suspended sentence of imprisonment, and the intermittent sentence of imprisonment. These reforms constitute a significant step for the sentencing process in England and Wales, and are in part a response to the 2001 Halliday Report. The changes (among others) may well have an important impact on the prison population in England and Wales, which in October 2002 reached a record level. Since the suspended sentence of imprisonment bears close resemblance to the conditional sentence of imprisonment introduced in Canada in 1996, the article makes comparisons between the two sanctions. [source]


    Recent Developments in India's Plant Variety Protection, Seed Regulation and Linkages with UPOV's Proposed Membership

    THE JOURNAL OF WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, Issue 3 2009
    Prabhash Ranjan
    The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights of the World Trade Organization imposes an obligation on all member countries to protect plant varieties either by patents or by a sui generis regime or by a combination of both. India explored the sui generis option to provide protection to plant varieties. This legal regime recognizes the rights of commercial breeders and also grants a positive right to farmers and goes beyond the widely recognized international sui generis regime represented by the International Union for the Protection of Plant Varieties (UPOV). Notwithstanding this, India has made an application to join UPOV. However, with the present plant variety law, India's membership application to join UPOV may not be successful. The recent development of bringing the Seeds Bill, which dilutes farmers' rights provisions in the plant variety law, is important in this regard. The article argues that if the Seeds Bill is passed in its present form, it will dilute the beneficial provisions of the plant variety law and pave the way for India to join UPOV. [source]


    The Parliamentary Standards Act 2009: A Constitutional Dangerous Dogs Measure?

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 2 2010
    Article first published online: 1 MAR 2010, Neil Parpworth
    The scandal which broke over MPs' abuses of the allowances system during the course of the last parliamentary session shows little sign of abating. As a result of an audit undertaken by Sir Thomas Legg, some MPs have been required to repay sums which were successfully claimed up to five years ago. Although this development has been welcomed by the public, it has been condemned by some in Parliament as being retrospective and unfair. In this article, the discussion focuses on the key provisions of the Parliamentary Standards Act 2009 which was enacted in order to tackle the issues raised by the expenses scandal. It considers their import and how they are likely to apply in practice. Since the Act is a further example of ,fast-track' legislation, there was no opportunity for pre-legislative scrutiny. This may help to explain why the Act differs in several important respects from the Bill which was originally introduced. It is highly likely that the 2009 Act will be the subject of post-legislative scrutiny, especially since it contains a renewal provision. [source]


    The Reclassification of Extreme Pornographic Images

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
    Andrew D. Murray
    Legal controls over the importation and supply of pornographic imagery promulgated nearly half a century ago in the Obscene Publications Acts have proven to be inadequate to deal with the challenge of the internet age. With pornographic imagery more readily accessible in the UK than at any time in our history, legislators have been faced with the challenge of stemming the tide. One particular problem has been the ready accessibility of extreme images which mix sex and violence or which portray necrophilia or bestiality. This article examines the Government's attempt to control the availability of such material through s.63 of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008, which criminalises possession of such images. It begins by examining the consultation process and concludes that an underlying public policy objective was the root of the new offence despite the lack of a clear mandate for such a policy. The article then examines whether this weakness in the foundations for the proposed new offence caused the proposal to be substantially amended during the Committee Stage of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill: to the extent that the final version of s.63 substantially fails to meet the original public policy objective. The article concludes by asking whether s.63 may have unintended consequences in that it fails to criminalise some of the more extreme examples of violent pornography while criminalising consensual BDSM images, and questions whether s.63 will be enforceable in any meaningful way. [source]


    Constitutional Change: A Note by the Bedside

    THE POLITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2005
    RICHARD WILSON
    The British constitution is undergoing major change although it tends to be carried out piecemeal and is often ignored. There are contradictory trends in what is happening. Some changes are deliberate major reforms which tend to disperse power and strengthen the rights of the individual against the State. Other changes are incidental by-products of other government policies, and tend in the other direction, towards the greater concentration of power in, and within, central government, for instance by the weakening of local government and the treatment of individual rights in legislation against terrorism. This second trend makes it all the more important that the checks and balances on the exercise of power by central government are effective. The main responsibility for ensuring this must rest with Parliament, backed up by the courts. A Civil Service Bill and perhaps a code of governance for central government would in their different ways be useful. [source]


    Renewing the War on prostitution: The spectres of ,trafficking' and ,slavery'

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 3 2009
    Sophie Day
    The 1990s saw government initiatives restricting immigration in many countries, and a good deal of popular unease. Associated policies have targeted sex workers, as with the Policing and Crime Bill that is currently in its Third Reading in the House of Commons (UK). In the name of ,victims' of a trade organised by ,evil' traffickers, this Bill seeks further sanctions against all of those involved. This editorial asks whether initiatives during the current recession might not seem to succeed but for the wrong reasons. Immigrants are already leaving the UK in search of a living while local workers, who were promised safer working conditions in the wake of the murder of five women in Ipswich (2006), will be punished more and more. With its apparently humanitarian efforts to ,stop the traffic', the UK government will turn out to have replaced our ,slaves' from abroad with home-grown substitutes, and effectively solidified and further excluded an underclass. This situation suggests striking parallels with the panic over white slavery during the last comparable period of globalisation culminating in the First World War. [source]