Binge Eating (binge + eating)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Binge Eating

  • binge eating disorder
  • binge eating episode

  • Selected Abstracts


    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Binge Eating

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 9 2007
    Samuele Cortese MD
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent and pervasive pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Emerging data suggest higher than expected rates of binge eating occur in subjects with ADHD. Several hypotheses may explain this newly described comorbidity: 1) inattention and/or impulsivity foster binge eating, 2) ADHD and binge eating share common neurobiolog-ical bases, 3) binge eating contributes to ADHD, or 4) psychopathological factors common to both binge eating and ADHD mediate the association. In patients with ADHD and binge eating, both conditions might benefit from common therapeutic strategies. Further research is needed to gain insight into the association between ADHD and binge eating in order to facilitate more appropriate clinical management and, ultimately, a better quality of life for patients with both conditions. [source]


    Validity and utility of the current definition of binge eating

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 8 2009
    Barbara E. Wolfe PhD, FAAN
    Abstract Objective Binge eating, a cardinal symptom of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), continues to pose challenges in terms of its definition and thus construct validity and clinical utility. This article reviews the available empirical data that support or refute the current DSM-IV-TR defined characteristics of a binge episode. Method A systematic literature review was conducted using Medline/PubMed electronic database on DSM-IV-TR defined binge characteristics and associated attributes. Results Data support the current DSM guidelines indicating that binge episodes typically occur in less than 2 h. Size of binge episodes has variability across BN and BED diagnostic groups. Loss of control (LOC) continues to be a core feature of binge eating. Negative affect is the most widely reported antecedent. Strikingly, little is known about binge episodes among individuals with anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype. Discussion Available empirical evidence supports the current DSM duration and LOC attributes of a binge episode in BN and BED. However, a more controversial issues is the extent to which size is important in the definition of a binge episode (e.g., subjective vs. objective episodes) across diagnostic categories and the extent to which binge size informs prognosis, treatment, and clinical outcomes. Further study of binge eating attributes in AN is needed. 2009 American Psychiatric Association. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]


    Inappropriate eating behaviors during pregnancy: Prevalence and associated factors among pregnant women attending primary care in southern Brazil,

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 5 2009
    Rafael Marques Soares RD
    Abstract Objective: To examine the prevalence of inappropriate eating behaviors and associated factors among pregnant women in primary care. Method: The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorders and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders was used to examine anxiety and depressive symptoms. Body mass index (BMI) and pregestational weight were also assessed. Results: Prevalence of binge eating during pregnancy was 17.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.5,20.0], followed by excessive shape (5.6%; 95% CI 4,8) and weight concerns (5.5%; 95% CI 4,8). Binge eating during pregnancy was significantly associated with binge eating before pregnancy [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.1; 95% CI 2.2,4.3], current anxiety symptoms (PR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3,2.4), and prepregnancy BMI < 19.8 kg/m2 (PR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1,2.5). The prevalence of eating disorders was 0.6% (95% CI 0.01,1.11). Discussion: Eating disorder symptoms should be routinely assessed and treated during prenatal care, along with other comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2009 [source]


    A randomized comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss treatment for overweight individuals with binge eating disorder

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2007
    Simone Munsch PhD
    Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss treatment (BWLT) for overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: Eighty obese patients meeting criteria of BED according to DSM-IV-TR were randomly assigned to either CBT or BWLT consisting of 16 weekly treatments and 6 monthly follow-up sessions. Binge eating, general psychopathology, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed before, during, and after treatment, and at 12-month follow-up. Results: At posttreatment results favored CBT as the more effective treatment. Analysis of the course of treatments pointed to a faster improvement of binge eating in CBT based on the number of self-reported weekly binges, but faster reduction of BMI in BWLT. At 12-month follow-up, no substantial differences between the two treatment conditions existed. Conclusion: CBT was somewhat more efficacious than BWLT in treating binge eating but this superior effect was barely maintained in the long term. Further research into cost effectiveness is needed to assess which treatment should be considered the treatment of choice. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]


    Binge eating and exercise behavior after surgery for severe obesity: A structural equation model

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 5 2006
    Junilla K. Larsen PhD
    Abstract Objective: The current study sought to find indications for the appropriateness of a model in which eating patterns and exercise beliefs influence binge eating and physical exercise, respectively, that, in turn, influence outcome after gastric banding for severe obesity. Method: Participants were 157 patients (144 females, 13 males) who completed questionnaires approximately 34 months (range = 8,68 months) after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Results: Our data showed a well-fitting model in which external and emotional eating were associated with outcome through binge eating. Several exercise beliefs were associated with physical exercise, but physical exercise was not associated with weight loss or physical health. Conclusion: Binge eating was related more strongly to the outcome after gastric banding than physical exercise. Future research should examine whether a strong focus on the management of binge eating and external and emotional eating could improve the outcome of morbidly obese patients with unsuccessful weight outcome after obesity surgery. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006. [source]


    Self-help treatments for disorders of recurrent binge eating: a systematic review

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2006
    S. C. Stefano
    Objective:, To evaluate self-help interventions for patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), tested in randomized controlled trials, and compared with waiting list or any other type of control group. Methods:, A systematic review including quality appraisal was conducted of randomized controlled trials, using self-help techniques in patients with BED and/or BN. Six databases were searched during the period between January 1994 and June 2004. Results:, A total of 2686 articles were identified, 1701 abstracts were evaluated in detail and, nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. All studies indicated that patients treated with active interventions had a reduced number of binge eating episodes at end of treatment. Conclusion:, The results support self-help interventions but shall be interpreted with caution. Because of the small number of studies using self-help techniques for BED and BN, further larger randomized, multi-center controlled studies that apply standardized inclusion criteria, evaluation instruments and self-help materials, are needed. [source]


    Change processes in residential cognitive therapy for bulimia nervosa

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 5 2010
    Asle Hoffart
    Abstract The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of process variables derived from the cognitive model of bulimia nervosa (BN) and weekly outcome. The participants were 39 patients with BN or subthreshold bulimia consecutively admitted to an inpatient treatment program for bulimia. Theory-derived process and outcome variables were measured repeatedly during the course of therapy with a gap of a week between each measurement. The data were analysed with time series methods (ARIMA). Weekly variations in the process variables: self-efficacy about resisting binge eating, dysfunctional beliefs, negative affect and positive affect influenced variations in subsequent outcome, whereas weekly outcome did not influence subsequent process. These results are consistent with the cognitive model of BN and suggest that self-efficacy, dysfunctional beliefs, negative affect and positive affect are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    Effect of self-monitoring on binge eating: treatment response or ,binge drift'?

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
    Tom Hildebrandt
    Abstract The current study aimed to determine if subjective bulimic episodes (SBEs) and objective bulimic episodes (OBEs) have different reactive effects to self-monitoring. Fourteen women with bulimia nervosa (57%) or binge eating disorder (43%) were diagnosed using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE; version 12.0). During the 7-days post-interview, participants filled out daily self-monitoring records indicating the food consumed and any episodes of loss of control over eating. These records were reviewed and coded for OBEs and SBEs using the EDE coding scheme. Paired samples t -tests indicated that participants' average number of daily OBEs significantly decreased from baseline to the period of self-monitoring (t,=,2.41, p,<,0.05, Cohen's d,=,0.90), whereas there was a significant increase from baseline to self-monitoring in their average number of SBEs (t,=,,2.41, p,<,0.05, Cohen's d,=,0.86). Of the 12 participants who showed a decrease in OBEs, 75% showed a concurrent increase in SBEs. The data suggest that the reactivity of OBEs to minimal or brief interventions may in part be due to binge drift, or the reduction of OBEs at the expense of increasing SBEs. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    An application of escape theory to binge eating

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
    Sonja Blackburn
    Abstract The application of Escape Theory (Heatherton & Baumeister, 1991) to binge eating was studied in a non-clinical sample of 129 women. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed a good fit between the Escape Model and the data. Perfectionism strongly predicted aversive self-awareness which, in turn, predicted negative affect. Negative affect predicted levels of avoidant coping which strongly predicted levels of binge eating. Implications for understanding and treating binge eating are considered. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    Lack of seasonal variation in eating attitudes and behaviours among female college students

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
    Melissa A. Munn
    Abstract Objective Previous studies have found a season of birth effect for women with eating disorders. However, findings regarding the two types of season of birth (i.e. month of birth and temperature at conception) have been conflicting, and few studies have examined relationships between season of birth and general disordered eating in non-clinical populations. The present study sought to examine this relationship more closely by investigating both month of birth and temperature at conception in undergraduate women. Method Subjects included 427 undergraduate females from a large university in the United States. Disordered eating in the areas of body dissatisfaction, compensatory behaviour, binge eating and weight preoccupation was assessed with the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey (MEBS). Results No significant mean differences in MEBS scores were found between those individuals born in the first versus second half of the year. Furthermore, no significant associations were found between disordered eating and temperature at conception. Discussion Our findings suggest that disordered eating symptoms do not show a season of birth effect. Discrepancies between these findings and those for clinical samples suggest the possible presence of different aetiological mechanisms for general eating symptoms versus clinical eating disorders. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    Caloric restriction for longevity: I. Paradigm, protocols and physiological findings in animal research

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 5 2004
    Kelly M. Vitousek
    Abstract The initial article in this series reviews basic findings in the field of caloric restriction for longevity (CRL). To eating disorder specialists, the data are disconcerting. The chronic dieting and subnormal weight we endeavour to prevent and treat in humans appear highly beneficial when imposed on animals. In the laboratory, organisms from nematodes to monkeys thrive when forced to undereat, as long as they receive sufficient micronutrients. The most remarkable results are obtained through the most extreme measures: mice, for example, do best if limited to a third of expected caloric intake, beginning soon after weaning and continuing throughout adulthood. Deprivation can be achieved through an ,anorexic' protocol of steady underconsumption or a ,bulimic' pattern in which periods of fasting alternate with bouts of binge eating. The benefits of such regimens include delayed senescence, postponement and/or attenuation of age-related disease and dramatic increases in average and maximum lifespan. Although some biological functions are impaired (including growth, reproduction and perhaps resistance to certain stressors), the cost/benefit ratio clearly favours CRL when calculated on the basis of physical outcomes in late age. Advocacy of comparable regimens for people, however, is ill-considered. Enthusiasm for CRL can be sustained only by detaching deprivation from the context of daily life, ignoring psychological effects, and dismissing data on human semi-starvation and eating disorders. The experiences of participants in Biosphere 2 and individuals with anorexia nervosa suggest that the price of CRL is unacceptably high when a wider range of outcome variables is examined. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    A comparison of clinical and psychological features in subgroups of patients with anorexia nervosa

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 4 2003
    Manuela Oliosi
    Abstract Background: In DSM-IV anorexics who purge without binging (AN-P) are considered together with the binge eating purging subgroup (AN-B). Few studies have investigated whether it is binge eating per se or the compensatory behaviours that provide the most relevant marker for subclassifying anorexia nervosa. Methods: We compared 40 restricting-type anorexics (AN-R), 40 AN-B and 38 AN-P subjects consecutively admitted to our inpatient treatment. We excluded patients who had not had a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa for at least 1.5 years duration. Results: AN-B patients showed a slightly more severe eating disorder symptomatology, while in terms of body weight AN-R and AN-P present a higher degree of weight loss. Psychiatric symptoms were similar in the three groups. Sexual abuse, suicide attempts and dissociative symptoms were higher in AN-P and AN-B patients compared to AN-R. Discussion: Our results together with the fact that it is difficult to define binge eating in anorexic subjects and that purging behaviours are often associated with severe medical complications, support the subtyping system of anorexia nervosa based on the presence/absence of purging behaviours rather than of binge eating. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    The role of biodevelopmental and psychological factors in disordered eating among adolescent males and females

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 4 2003
    M. P. McCabe
    Abstract The present study examined the role of biodevelopmental and psychological factors in the development of disordered eating in early adolescent males and females. Three hundred and six girls (mean age,=,13.66 years; SD,=,1.12 years) and 297 boys (mean age,=,13.89 years; SD,=,1.13 years) from grades 7,10 completed a questionnaire which assessed disordered eating, biodevelopmental (body mass index (BMI), age and puberty) and psychological factors (self-esteem, depression, anxiety, ineffectiveness, perfectionism). Not surprisingly, girls were more likely than boys to engage in extreme weight loss behaviours. There were no significant differences between boys and girls on measures of binge eating or bulimic tendencies. Self-esteem, depression and anxiety were found to be significant predictors of disordered eating among girls, while anxiety, ineffectiveness, self-esteem and perfectionism were significant predictors among boys. The findings from this study demonstrate the importance of psychological variables in predicting extreme weight loss behaviours among both adolescent males and females. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    Does ecological momentary assessment improve cognitive behavioural therapy for binge eating disorder?

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 5 2002
    A pilot study
    Abstract The purpose of this pilot study was to test whether self-monitoring in CBT could be enhanced in order to improve the identification of proximal antecedents of binge eating in binge eating disorder (BED). CBT was modified by asking participants to monitor all eating intensively through ecological momentary assessment (EMA). A total of 41 females (mean BMI,=,37.9; SD,=,8.2) meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED were randomly assigned to one of two group treatments; CBT (n,=,22) or CBT with EMA (n,=,19). CBT with EMA differed from CBT in that for the first 2 weeks of treatment, participants completed detailed pocket diaries about mood, events, etc., when signalled at random by programmable wristwatches, as well as at all times when eating. All participants completed measures of eating (EDE-Q, TFEQ, EES) and general psychopathology (BDI, RSE) before treatment, at the end of treatment, and at 1-year follow-up. While both treatment groups showed improvement on the outcome variables of interest, the individual data gained via EMA did not significantly enhance standard CBT. Therefore, it is unlikely that further research incorporating EMA as a therapeutic technique within CBT for BED will be compelling. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    Compulsive Consumption Tendencies Among Television Shoppers

    FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 4 2000
    Seung-Hee Lee
    Compulsive buying and binge eating are consumption behaviors that are similarly related to low self-esteem and poor impulse control, occurring more frequently in women. Using a national random sample, the authors examined the extent to which compulsive buying and binge eating were related in a nonclinical population of known television shoppers. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 334 women. Multiple regression analyses revealed that (a) binge-eating and compulsive-buying scores were positively related, and (b) both compulsive-buying and bingeeating scores were positively related to television shopping channel exposure. About 10% of the television shoppers in this study were found to have compulsive-buying tendencies. Strategies for coping with unwise compulsive consumption are offered. [source]


    Self-reported weight gain following smoking cessation: A function of binge eating behavior

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 6 2010
    Marney A. White PhD
    Abstract Objective This study investigated patterns of self-reported weight gain following smoking cessation among overweight individuals with and without binge eating. Method Participants were 103 overweight (BMI , 25) community volunteers who completed a battery of questionnaires online. Key items queried smoking cessation history and weight gain in the year following cessation. Participants were classified as nonbinge eating overweight (NBO, n = 56) or binge eating disorder (BED, n = 47). Results BED participants were significantly more likely to report weight gain in the year following smoking cessation than NBO participants. After controlling for current BMI, the amount of self-reported weight gain following smoking cessation differed significantly between groups, with the NBO group reporting an average gain of 5.0 kg and the BED group reporting 11.2-kg gain. Discussion Since many individuals resume smoking due to cessation-associated weight gain, these findings highlight the need for targeted interventions for overweight individuals particularly those who also binge eat. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2010; 43:572,575 [source]


    Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2010
    Silja Vocks PhD
    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compute and compare mean effects of various treatments for binge eating disorder. Method: A total of 38 studies with 1973 participants fulfilled the defined inclusion criteria. Effect sizes, odds ratios, and simple rates were integrated in fixed and random (mixed) effects categorical models. Results: From randomized controlled trials, psychotherapy and structured self-help, both based on cognitive behavioral interventions, were found to have large effects on the reduction of binge eating. Regarding pharmacotherapy, mainly comprising antidepressants, randomized controlled trials revealed medium effects for the reduction of binge eating. Uncontrolled studies on weight-loss treatments demonstrated moderate reductions of binge eating. Combination treatments did not result in higher effects compared with single-treatment regimens. Except for weight-loss treatment, none of the interventions resulted in a considerable weight reduction. Discussion: Psychotherapy and structured self-help, both based on cognitive-behavioral interventions, should be recommended as the first-line treatments. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2010 [source]


    Validity and utility of the current definition of binge eating

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 8 2009
    Barbara E. Wolfe PhD, FAAN
    Abstract Objective Binge eating, a cardinal symptom of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), continues to pose challenges in terms of its definition and thus construct validity and clinical utility. This article reviews the available empirical data that support or refute the current DSM-IV-TR defined characteristics of a binge episode. Method A systematic literature review was conducted using Medline/PubMed electronic database on DSM-IV-TR defined binge characteristics and associated attributes. Results Data support the current DSM guidelines indicating that binge episodes typically occur in less than 2 h. Size of binge episodes has variability across BN and BED diagnostic groups. Loss of control (LOC) continues to be a core feature of binge eating. Negative affect is the most widely reported antecedent. Strikingly, little is known about binge episodes among individuals with anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype. Discussion Available empirical evidence supports the current DSM duration and LOC attributes of a binge episode in BN and BED. However, a more controversial issues is the extent to which size is important in the definition of a binge episode (e.g., subjective vs. objective episodes) across diagnostic categories and the extent to which binge size informs prognosis, treatment, and clinical outcomes. Further study of binge eating attributes in AN is needed. 2009 American Psychiatric Association. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]


    Five-year longitudinal predictive factors for disordered eating in a population-based sample of overweight adolescents: Implications for prevention and treatment

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 7 2009
    Dianne Neumark-Sztainer PhD
    Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to identify predictors of prevalence and incidence of disordered eating (binge eating and extreme weight control behaviors) among overweight adolescents. Method Five-year longitudinal associations were examined in 412 overweight adolescents who participated in Project EAT-I and II. Results Among both overweight males and females, risk factors for disordered eating included exposure to weight loss magazine articles, higher weight importance, and unhealthy weight control behaviors, while family connectedness, body satisfaction, and regular meals were protective factors, although there were some differences in predictors of prevalence (total cases) versus incidence (new cases) of disordered eating. Among males, poor eating patterns, including fast food and sweetened beverage intake, increased risk for disordered eating, and the use of healthy weight control behaviors was protective. Discussion Attention should be directed toward decreasing disordered eating among overweight adolescents. Findings suggest the importance of promoting positive family relationships, psychological health, and regular meals, and steering adolescents away from overemphasizing weight and using unhealthy weight control behaviors. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]


    Inappropriate eating behaviors during pregnancy: Prevalence and associated factors among pregnant women attending primary care in southern Brazil,

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 5 2009
    Rafael Marques Soares RD
    Abstract Objective: To examine the prevalence of inappropriate eating behaviors and associated factors among pregnant women in primary care. Method: The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorders and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders was used to examine anxiety and depressive symptoms. Body mass index (BMI) and pregestational weight were also assessed. Results: Prevalence of binge eating during pregnancy was 17.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.5,20.0], followed by excessive shape (5.6%; 95% CI 4,8) and weight concerns (5.5%; 95% CI 4,8). Binge eating during pregnancy was significantly associated with binge eating before pregnancy [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.1; 95% CI 2.2,4.3], current anxiety symptoms (PR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3,2.4), and prepregnancy BMI < 19.8 kg/m2 (PR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1,2.5). The prevalence of eating disorders was 0.6% (95% CI 0.01,1.11). Discussion: Eating disorder symptoms should be routinely assessed and treated during prenatal care, along with other comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2009 [source]


    Binge-like eating in mice

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 5 2009
    Daniele Consoli MD
    Abstract Objective Given the lack of reliable murine model of binge-like eating, we tried to induce this pathological behavior in mice. Method We used an experimental protocol mimicking the etiological factors involved in the development of binge eating in humans, that is, food restriction, refeeding (R-R) in presence of high palatable food, and stress (S). Results Mice subjected to at least three cycles of R-R plus S (forced swimming stress), showed a binge-like behavior evident as early as 4 h, persisting 24 h after stress application and not associated to depressive-like behavior. However, after the third R-R/S cycle, food intakes of mice returned to normal levels. Discussion (i) at least three cycles of R-R plus S are required to promote abnormal eating in mice, (ii) this is not associated to depressive-like behaviors, and (iii) the enhanced pathological behavior showed a transient nature not persisting after the third R-R/S cycle. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2009 [source]


    Gender difference in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms,,

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 5 2009
    Ruth H. Striegel-Moore PhD
    Abstract Objective: This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method: A random sample of members (ages 18,35 years) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating, whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observed, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes ("Number Needed to Treat") were small to moderate. Discussion: Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]


    "Ice" use and eating disorders: A report of three cases

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2009
    Alice Neale MD
    Abstract Objective: To describe the use of crystal methamphetamine hydrochloride "ice," a powerful, synthetic stimulant drug associated with rapid weight loss. Method: We report the first three cases of young women "ice" users requiring admission to a specialized eating disorders unit. Results: Case one had no prior history of an eating disorder and became emaciated following regular use of "ice"; she regarded weight gain positively. Case 2 had polysubstance abuse since early adolescence and commenced binge eating and vomiting in response to weight gain when not using "ice"; she learned to maintain her weight without weight losing behaviors. Case 3 developed anorexia nervosa in early adolescence, required numerous inpatient admissions and commenced using stimulant drugs for weight loss in her late teens; she discharged prematurely. All patients had features of personality disorder on interview and drug abuse had impaired their work and social adjustment. Discussion: "Ice" use may be associated with the onset of disordered eating or used as an efficient weight losing behavior in an established eating disorder. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009. [source]


    Birth outcomes in women with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study (MoBa)

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 1 2009
    Cynthia M. Bulik PhD
    Abstract Objective We explored the impact of eating disorders on birth outcomes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Method Of 35,929 pregnant women, 35 reported broad anorexia nervosa (AN), 304 bulimia nervosa (BN), 1,812 binge eating disorder (BED), and 36 EDNOS-purging type (EDNOS-P) in the six months before or during pregnancy. The referent comprised 33,742 women with no eating disorder. Results Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was lower in AN and higher in BED than the referent. AN, BN, and BED mothers reported greater gestational weight gain, and smoking was elevated in all eating disorder groups. BED mothers had higher birth weight babies, lower risk of small for gestational age, and higher risk of large for gestational age and cesarean section than the referent. Pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain attenuated the effects. Conclusion BED influences birth outcomes either directly or via higher maternal weight and gestational weight gain. The absence of differences in AN and EDNOS-P may reflect small numbers and lesser severity in population samples. Adequate gestational weight gain in AN may mitigate against adverse birth outcomes. Detecting eating disorders in pregnancy could identify modifiable factors (e.g., high gestational weight gain, binge eating, and smoking) that influence birth outcomes. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]


    Monetary costs associated with bulimia

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 1 2009
    Scott J. Crow MD
    Abstract Objective: The direct monetary costs for food and laxatives, diet pills, and diuretics used by individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) have not been studied. Method: Ten participants with a presenting clinical diagnosis of BN completed a 7-day food record at the outset of treatment in order to provide estimates of weekly and yearly monetary costs for food and associated symptoms. Results: Participants reported means of 3.6 purge episodes, 2.5 objective binge episodes, and 2.4 subjective binge eating episodes per week. Mean total food costs were $106.98/week (SD = $53.88) or $5,581.79/year (SD = $2,811.58). Costs associated with binge eating and purging were 32.7% of all food costs (average: $1,599.45/year). Conclusion: Financial costs of bulimia symptoms are significant, and appear to constitute a substantial minority of all food spending by individuals with BN. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]


    Activity-based anorexia during adolescence does not promote binge eating during adulthood in female rats

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 8 2008
    Wenli Cai
    Abstract Objective: Given the frequency of transition from anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa, this study investigated whether a history of activity-based anorexia (ABA) during adolescence would promote binge eating during adulthood in female rats. Method: Adolescent rats were given 1-h unlimited access to chow and ad libitum access to a running wheel until body weight reached <80%, indicating the development of ABA. During adulthood, all groups were given 21 days of access to a palatable food for 2 h/day and ad libitum access to chow. Results: During adolescence, rats in the ABA paradigm developed increased wheel running and decreased food intake, reaching <80% of body weight after 3 days. However, there were no significant differences between groups in the amount of binge food consumed during adulthood. Conclusion: A brief episode of ABA during adolescence did not lead to increased binge eating later in life. Longer-term models are needed to determine whether a propensity toward binge eating may result from more sustained ABA during adolescence. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]


    The point prevalence of bulimic disorders from 1990 to 2004

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 6 2008
    Janis H. Crowther PhD
    Abstract Objective: This study investigated the point prevalence of probable cases of bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and specific eating disorder symptomatology among 6,844 undergraduate women at a single site, examining changes across five 3-year time periods and on a yearly basis from 1990 to 2004. Method: Participants completed a self-report checklist that assessed the diagnostic criteria for BN (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 1994) and the Bulimia Test (Smith and Thelen, J Consult Clin Psychol, 52, 863,872, 1984) (BULIT) or Bulimia Test-Revised (Thelen et al., Psychol Assess, 3, 119,124, 1991) (BULIT-R). Results: Chi-square analyses comparing the percentages of probable cases of BN and EDNOS and the percentages of women who reported frequent binge eating and most compensatory weight control strategies were nonsignificant. Only the percentages of women who endorsed overconcern with weight and shape and diuretic use and excessive exercise as compensatory weight control strategies changed over time. Conclusion: Consistent with Keel et al.'s (Keel et al., Psychol Med, 36, 119,127, 2006) findings regarding the point prevalence rates of BN from 1992 to 2002, results indicated that probable cases of eating disorders remained relatively stable. Methodologically, this research illustrates the importance of examining multiple data points when investigating stability or change in behavior. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]


    Association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism, platelet MAO activity, and drive for thinness in a population-based sample of adolescent girls

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 5 2008
    Kirsti Akkermann MSc
    Abstract Objective: Several lines of evidence suggest that alterations in serotonergic activity contribute to the pathophysiology of abnormal eating behaviors. Since platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and the 5-HT transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) have been associated with eating disorders, the knowledge from a population-based sample may provide useful information which changes in 5-HT function observed in eating disorders represent trait vs. state effects. Method: The sample was based on both cohorts of the Estonian Children Personality, Behavior and Health Study (ECPBHS). The current study was conducted during the second follow-up where altogether 82% from the original sample was recruited. EDI-2 subscales,Drive for Thinness and Bulimia,were used to determine eating attitudes and behaviors. Platelet MAO activity was measured and the participants were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR. Results: Allelic variation of 5-HTTLPR or platelet MAO activity were not independently associated with drive for thinness or binge eating, but girls homozygous for the 5-HTTLPR long allele and with high platelet MAO activity, both considered indicators of a higher capacity 5-HT system, exhibited higher scores of drive for thinness. Conclusion: The results suggest that drive for thinness is the highest in girls with the presence of two markers of higher serotonergic capacity. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]


    Baclofen for binge eating: An open-label trial

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 8 2007
    Allegra I. Broft MD
    Abstract Objective: Baclofen is a GABA-B agonist that may be useful in the treatment of substance use disorders, and also reduces ,binge-like' eating in rodents. We hypothesized that baclofen might be effective in reducing binge eating episodes in binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Method: Seven women with BED (n = 4) or BN (n = 3) took baclofen (60 mg/day) for 10 weeks. Results: Six out of seven patients completed the full 10-week trial. Five out of seven participants (3 BED; 2 BN) demonstrated 50% or greater reduction of frequency of binge eating from beginning to end of the study. Three out of seven participants (2 BED; 1 BN) were free of binge eating at study end. Four out of seven participants elected to continue baclofen at study end. Baclofen was well tolerated by the participants. Conclusion: In this open-label trial, baclofen was associated with decreased binge eating frequency in patients with BED and BN. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007 [source]


    Pathways to help-seeking in bulimia nervosa and binge eating problems: A concept mapping approach

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 6 2007
    Natasha Hepworth PhD
    Abstract Objective: To conduct an in-depth study, using concept mapping, of three factors related to help-seeking for bulimia nervosa and binge eating: problem recognition, barriers to help-seeking, and prompts to help-seeking. Method: Semistructured interviews were conducted to elicit information about help-seeking with 63 women (18,62 years) with past or present bulimic behaviors. Results: Using Leximancer software, factors identified as associated with problem recognition were Changes in Behavior, Interference with Life Roles, Comments about Changes and Psychological Problems. Salient barriers to help-seeking were Fear of Stigma, Low Mental Health Literacy/Perception of Need, Shame, Fear of Change and Cost. Prompts to help-seeking were increased Symptom Severity, Psychological Distress, Interference with Life Roles, Health Problems, and Desire to Get Better. Conclusion: Results highlighted the need for awareness campaigns to reduce both self and perceived stigma by others towards bulimic behaviors, and the need to enhance awareness of available interventions for people ready to engage in treatment, to increase help-seeking. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]