Big Five (big + five)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Big Five

  • big five dimension
  • big five factor
  • big five model
  • big five personality factor
  • big five personality trait

  • Selected Abstracts


    Right-wing authoritarianism, Big Five and perceived threat to safety

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 2 2010
    Francesca Dallago
    Abstract Using structural equations modelling, we performed a secondary analysis of the data collected by the Italian Observatory of the North West (Italian national sample, N,=,976) to investigate the direct, mediated and moderated relations connecting the Big Five personality factors and perceived personal and societal threat to safety with right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Openness, Conscientiousness and perceived societal threat to safety exerted additive effects on RWA; the relation between Openness and RWA was partially mediated by societal threat to safety and that between societal threat to safety and RWA was moderated by Openness. Limitations and possible developments of this research are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    More than the Big Five: Egoism and the HEXACO model of personality

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 8 2009
    Reinout E. de Vries
    Abstract Egoism is a personality trait that is associated with self-enriching and self-centred behaviours. Research has suggested that egoism lies beyond the Big Five personality factors. Recently, the HEXACO model of personality has been proposed as an alternative to the Big Five model. In three studies, the relation between the HEXACO Personality Inventory and egoism, conceptualized using three different questionnaires (DPQ Egoism, SPI Egotism and the Egoism Scale), is investigated. In all three studies, the HEXACO Honesty,Humility factor scale was the most important predictor of egoism. Additionally, in two studies in which FFM measures were used, the HEXACO Personality Inventory explained more variance in egoism than did the FFPI (Study 2) and the NEO-PI-R (Study 3). Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Personality traits and health-risk behaviours in university students

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 8 2009
    Ryan Y. Hong
    Abstract Relations between personality and health-risk behaviours in university undergraduates were examined using multiple measures of personality across multiple samples (N,=,1151). Big Five personality variables, at both factor and facet levels, were used to predict three specific health-risk behaviours: (a) tobacco consumption, (b) alcohol consumption and (c) speeding in an automobile. Our findings showed that low Conscientiousness and low Agreeableness were uniformly associated with this cluster of potentially health damaging behaviours. Extraversion was additionally associated with alcohol use. Interaction effects were found between Conscientiousness and Agreeableness on smoking and (for men only) on drinking. Other personality variables not centrally related to the Big Five, such as Risk-Taking (high) and Integrity (low), were also implicated in the present health-risk behaviours. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Lexical studies of Filipino person descriptors: adding personality-relevant social and physical attributes

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 4 2008
    Shellah Myra Imperio
    Abstract Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N,=,496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes,Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice versa. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Sex differences in school achievement: what are the roles of personality and achievement motivation?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 3 2008
    Ricarda Steinmayr
    Abstract It is consistently reported that despite equal cognitive ability, girls outperform boys in school. In several methodological steps, the present study examined sex differences in school achievement and some of the most important personality and motivational constructs in a sample of 204 females and 138 adolescent males (mean age M,=,16.94 years; SD,=,0.71). Grades in Math and German as well as grade point average (GPA) served as achievement criteria. Intelligence, the Big Five of personality and motivational variables (achievement motives, goal orientation, task values and ability self-concepts) served as predictors. After controlling for intelligence, girls' grades were significantly better than boys'. Mean sex differences were found for most variables. There were no gender-specific associations between predictors and grades. Agreeableness, work avoidance, ability self-concepts and values ascribed to German mediated the association between sex and grades in German. Controlling for ability self-concepts and values ascribed to Math enhanced the association between sex and math grades. We concluded that personality and motivation play important roles in explaining sex differences in school attainment. Results are discussed against the background of practical and methodological implications. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Culture and the behavioural manifestations of traits: an application of the Act Frequency Approach

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 4 2007
    A. Timothy Church
    Abstract The behavioural manifestations of Big Five traits were compared across cultures using the Act Frequency Approach. American (n,=,176) and Filipino (n,=,195) students completed a Big Five measure and act frequency ratings for behaviours performed during the past month. Acts for specific traits cohered to an equivalent degree across cultures. In both cultures, the structure of act composites resembled the Big Five and the strength of trait-behaviour relationships was very similar. Many acts were multidimensional and analyses revealed cultural commonalities and differences in the relevance and prevalence of acts for the Big Five traits. The results were more consistent with trait than cultural psychology perspectives, because traits predicted behaviour equally well, on average, in the two cultures. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The personality-identity interplay in emerging adult women: convergent findings from complementary analyses

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 3 2006
    Koen Luyckx
    Abstract The present study examined whether identity development occurs in tandem with personality development in emerging adulthood. Three-wave longitudinal data on a sample of 351 female college students were used to answer questions about stability and change, direction of effects, and interrelated developmental trajectories. Four identity dimensions (i.e. commitment making, exploration in breadth, identification with commitment, and exploration in depth) and the Big Five were assessed. Identity and personality were found to be meaningfully related at the level of both the time-specific adjacent measures and the underlying developmental trajectories with various degrees of convergence. Cross-lagged analyses substantiated reciprocal influences and Latent Growth Curve Modelling substantiated common developmental pathways that partially mirrored the concurrent relations. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, Social Dominance Orientation, or Right-Wing Authoritarianism?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 6 2004
    Bo Ekehammar
    Whereas previous research has studied the relation of either (i) personality with prejudice, (ii) personality with social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), or (iii) SDO and RWA with prejudice, the present research integrates all approaches within the same model. In our study (N,=,183), various causal models of the relationships among the Big Five, SDO, RWA, and Generalized Prejudice are proposed and tested. Generalized Prejudice scores were obtained from a factor analysis of the scores on various prejudice instruments (racism, sexism, prejudice toward homosexuals, and mentally disabled people), which yielded a one-factor solution. The best-fitting causal model, which was our suggested hypothetical model, showed that Big Five personality had no direct effect on Generalized Prejudice but an indirect effect transmitted through RWA and SDO, where RWA seems to capture personality aspects to a greater extent than SDO. Specifically, Generalized Prejudice was affected indirectly by Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness through RWA, and by Agreeableness through SDO, whereas Neuroticism had no effect at all. The results are discussed against the background of previous research and the personality and social psychology approaches to the study of prejudice. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Attachment styles, personality, and Dutch emigrants' intercultural adjustment

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2004
    Winny Bakker
    The present study examines the relationship of adult attachment styles with personality and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. A sample of 847 first-generation Dutch emigrants filled out measures for attachment styles, the Big Five, and indicators of psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Positive relationships were found between Secure attachment on the one hand and psychological and sociocultural adjustment on the other. Ambivalent attachment was strongly negatively associated with psychological adjustment. Dismissive attachment was mildly negatively related to sociocultural adjustment. Significant relations were found between attachment styles and the Big Five dimensions, particularly Extraversion and Emotional Stability. The attachment scales were able to explain variance in sociocultural adjustment beyond that explained by the Big Five dimensions. Intercultural adjustment is discussed from a transactional view of personality. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Is trait-Emotional Intelligence simply or more than just a trait?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 4 2004
    Karen van der Zee
    The present study examined the usefulness of trait-Emotional Intelligence (EI) among a sample of 1186 top managers who filled out questionnaires for Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five and were evaluated by a consultant on their competencies. Three higher-order factors were found to underlie the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997): sense of accomplishment, empathy, and planfulness. Trait-EI was found to be substantially related to Extraversion, Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Autonomy. Nevertheless, the EI-factors predicted additional variance over and above the Big Five in competency to support. On the whole, top managers scored higher on the EI dimensions compared with a general population sample. High EI scores were particularly found among managers from enterprising occupational environments, that is environments dominated by activities that entail persuading and leading others to attain organizational goals or economic gain. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Gray's model of personality and aggregate level factor analysis

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2003
    Chris J. Jackson
    Previous research shows that correlations tend to increase in magnitude when individuals are aggregated across groups. This suggests that uncorrelated constellations of personality variables (such as the primary scales of Extraversion and Neuroticism) may display much higher correlations in aggregate factor analysis. We hypothesize and report that individual level factor analysis can be explained in terms of Giant Three (or Big Five) descriptions of personality, whereas aggregate level factor analysis can be explained in terms of Gray's physiological based model. Although alternative interpretations exist, aggregate level factor analysis may correctly identify the basis of an individual's personality as a result of better reliability of measures due to aggregation. We discuss the implications of this form of analysis in terms of construct validity, personality theory, and its applicability in general. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Trait emotional intelligence: behavioural validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 1 2003
    K. V. Petrides
    This paper presents two experiments concerning trait emotional intelligence (,trait EI'). In study 1, ten high and ten low trait EI individuals were selected from a sample of 85 persons to participate in a computerized experiment involving the recognition of morphed emotional expressions. As hypothesized, high trait EI participants were faster at identifying the expressions than their low trait EI counterparts. In study 2, trait EI scores from 102 persons were residualized on the Big Five and subsequently 15 high and 15 low trait EI individuals were selected to participate in a mood induction experiment. As hypothesized, high trait EI participants exhibited greater sensitivity to the mood induction procedure than their low trait EI counterparts. The findings are discussed in terms of the construct validity of trait EI, with particular emphasis on the issue of incremental validity vis--vis broad personality traits. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The relationship of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and the Big Five

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 2 2002
    Karen Van der Zee
    The present study examines the relationship of self- and other ratings of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and personality, as well as the incremental validity of emotional intelligence beyond academic intelligence and personality in predicting academic and social success. A sample of 116 students filled in measures for emotional and academic intelligence, the Big Five, and indicators of social and academic success. Moreover, other ratings were obtained from four different raters on emotional intelligence and social success. Factor analysis revealed three emotional intelligence dimensions that were labelled as ,Empathy', ,Autonomy', and ,Emotional Control'. Little evidence was found for a relationship between emotional and academic intelligence. Academic intelligence was low and inconsistently related to emotional intelligence, revealing both negative and positive interrelations. Strong relationships were found of the emotional intelligence dimensions with the Big Five, particularly with Extraversion and Emotional Stability. Interestingly, the emotional intelligence dimensions were able to predict both academic and social success above traditional indicators of academic intelligence and personality. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Gone too far,or not far enough?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 1 2002
    Comments on the article by Ashton, Lee (2001)
    Ashton and Lee argue that Honesty should be added to the Big Five model of personality as a sixth factor, and present a theoretical framework for interpreting Big Five factors and Honesty that helps make sense of the proposed six-factor structure. The attempt by Ashton and Lee to go beyond the Big Five is applauded, but numerous problems are evident. Adding Honesty to the Big Five is plausible only if one ignores key assumptions that the Big Five model consists of independent factors that are candidates for pervasive lexical universals. The proposal does not take into account significant deviations from the Anglo-Germanic Big Five that have occurred in emic studies of languages having their origin outside of northern Europe, nor potential substantive interpretations of the widely replicated Negative Valence factor. Future studies should seek improvements or alternatives to the Big Five in a way that keeps constituent factors well discriminated from one another and enhances the likelihood of ubiquity across diverse languages and cultures. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Six independent factors of personality variation: a response to Saucier

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 1 2002
    Michael C. Ashton
    We address the concerns raised by Saucier about our proposed six-factor structure of personality. First, we dispute Saucier's new interpretation of the Negative Valence factor as a meaningful dimension of personality variation. We explain that Negative Valence terms may distort the structure of personality-descriptive terms, and that the substantive variance of Honesty is weakly correlated with Negative Valence. Also, we point out that our proposed six factors are (like the Big Five) roughly orthogonal, and that the occurrence of rotational variants within this six-dimensional space is not problematic. We argue that in terms of comprehensiveness, parsimony, independence of factors, and replicability across languages, our proposed six-factor model so far seems to be the optimal structure of personality characteristics. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Analysis of genetic influences on the consistency and variability of the Big Five across different stressful situations

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2001
    Gerty Lensvelt-Mulders
    Several studies have demonstrated that individual differences in personality traits, known as the Big Five, have a genetic component. These personality traits are considered important predictors of everyday behaviour. In addition to personality traits there are also factors in the environment that govern behaviour. This dual influence on behaviour is statistically reflected in a P,,S interaction. This study examines the genetic and environmental influences on the interactions between a person and his daily life environment for the Big Five. Fifty-seven identical twin pairs and 43 fraternal twin pairs participated in this study. Trait related behaviour was measured in 30 different situations with the aid of an SR inventory. The heritability coefficients for the main effect of P were in the normal range, varying between 0.35 for Agreeableness and 0.53 for Conscientiousness. The heritability coefficients for the P,,S interactions were moderately high, explaining between 26% and 69% of the total P,,S variance. The consequences of these results for general and behavioural genetic research on the Big Five will be discussed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Psychometric Correlates of FIRO-B Scores: Locating the FIRO-B scores in personality factor space

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT, Issue 1 2008
    Adrian Furnham
    This paper investigated the relationship between the six Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO)-B scales, the Big Five Personality traits assessed by the NEO PI-R, the Hogan Development Survey (HDS) and two measures of cognitive ability (Watson Glaser; Graduate and Managerial Assessment). It examined the concurrent and construct validity of the measure in various adult groups attending assessment centres in order to locate the FIRO-B dimensions in established personality factor space. The FIRO-B was consistently correlated with Extraversion, though analysis at the primary factor (facet) level showed many traits from all five factors were strongly correlated with the six FIRO-B scores. Regressing the six FIRO-B facets onto each of the Big Five in turn showed all were significant particularly for Expressed Inclusion and Wanted Control. The second study also showed considerable and logical overlap between the six FIRO-B scales and the 11 dysfunctional personality strategies as measured by the HDS. There were also strong correlational patterns for the Cautious, Reserved, Colourful and Dutiful type disorders. The third study showed the FIRO-B was statistically associated with both cognitive ability tests though it only accounted for small percentages of the explained variance. Expressed Control was the most consistently correlated of the intelligence test scores. Despite the fact that many explicable associations were found between the FIRO-B and other measure the effect sizes were not large. Thus only 4% of the trait facet scores and 4.5% of the HDS showed medium effect sizes. Results are discussed in terms of the usefulness and possible discriminant validity of the instrument for use in selection and assessment. [source]


    Importance of Perceived Personnel Selection System Fairness Determinants: Relations with Demographic, Personality, and Job Characteristics

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT, Issue 1-2 2004
    Chockalingam Viswesvaran
    This study explored the relative importance attached to various perceived personnel selection fairness determinants (e.g., selection system content-based variables, features of selection system administration). We investigated how demographic variables (ethnicity and gender), individual differences characteristics (the Big Five and cognitive ability) and job characteristics (job complexity and domestic/expatriate assignment status) relate to the importance of ratings of perceived personnel selection system determinants. The results, especially for race/ethnicity analyses indicated that there might be differences across demographic groups in importance placed on different aspects of selection system characteristics. The magnitudes of the relationships were small to moderate for Asian,White and Hispanic,White comparisons. Asian,Hispanic and gender differences in importance assessments were small. Few individual differences variables (i.e., personality and cognitive ability) were associated with importance placed on various aspects of selection system characteristics. Notable exceptions were moderate positive relationships between general mental ability and importance of content-based selection system characteristics, and moderate negative relationships between emotional stability, conscientiousness and cognitive ability, and importance of selection system context variables. The complexity levels of the jobs held by respondents did not appreciably affect the importance placed on the different selection system characteristics. There were few notable differences between importance assessments for domestic versus expatriate positions. Implications for practice, especially managing cultural diversity in organizations, and for theory development are discussed. [source]


    Personality Correlates with Frequency of Being Targeted for Unexpected Advances by Strangers,

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Kikue Sakaguchi
    Female Japanese students answered questionnaires about personality (Sociosexual Orientation Inventory and the Big Five) and the frequency of having been targeted for unexpected advances by strangers. Women who reported having been frequently targeted for being "picked up" with sexual intentions had unrestricted sociosexuality (r = .38, p < .0001; n = 145) and had personalities that suggested unrestricted sociosexuality (extraversion and openness). The frequency of being targeted for inappropriate touching was not associated consistently with personality traits. Women who reported having been frequently targeted for nonsexual advances were likely to rate themselves high in agreeableness. The ecological significance of the ability to choose a stranger with whom to interact, based on person perceptions through brief observation, is discussed. [source]


    Personality and intimate partner aggression in dating relationships: the role of the "Big Five"

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 6 2008
    Denise A. Hines
    Abstract Although personality is shown to predict negative relationship experiences, few researchers have used a structural model of personality to study the ways that personality contributes to intimate partner aggression (IPA). This study investigates the five-factor model of personality and its associations with both the use and receipt of psychological, physical, and sexual IPA in 179 men and 301 women. Each of the five factors of personality was associated with at least one type of IPA perpetration or victimization. The dimensions of neuroticism and agreeableness were the strongest predictors of IPA particularly for women. Results are discussed in terms of why personality should be considered as a predictor for both the use and receipt of IPA, why sex differences emerged, and future research that should be conducted. Aggr. Behav. 34:593,604, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The confounding role of personality and trait affectivity in the relationship between job and life satisfaction

    JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, Issue 7 2002
    Daniel Heller
    Previous research has demonstrated a strong positive relationship between job and life satisfaction. Traditionally, this relationship has been explained in terms of a spillover model, wherein job experiences spill over onto life, and vice versa. This study directly tests a different explanation for this relationship: personality traits that influence both job and life satisfaction. In a longitudinal test with multisource data, three typologies, which were shown by past research to be linked to both job and life satisfaction, were examined: Big Five, positive and negative affectivity, and core self-evaluations. One hundred and fifty-three university employees working in a diverse set of occupations were surveyed twice, with a six month time interval; the first survey also included a second questionnaire to be completed by a ,significant other.' Analyses of concurrent and prospective zero-order and partial correlations, as well as structural equation modeling, supported the hypothesized confounding role of all three typologies, especially core self-evaluations. Though controlling for personality reduced the magnitude of the job,life satisfaction relationship, it did not entirely eliminate it. Overall, the results suggest the presence of both dispositional and environmental factors in job and life satisfaction. Finally, implications for organizational practice and theory development are discussed. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Dimensions of Normal and Abnormal Personality: Elucidating DSM-IV Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescents

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 3 2010
    Noor B. Tromp
    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to elucidate dimensions of normal and abnormal personality underlying DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred to mental health services. Dimensions derived from the Big Five of normal personality and from Livesley's (2006) conceptualization of personality pathology were regressed on interview-based DSM-IV PD symptom counts. When examined independently, both models demonstrated significant levels of predictive power at the higher order level. However, when added to the higher order Big Five dimensions, Livesley's higher and lower order dimensions afforded a supplementary contribution to the understanding of dysfunctional characteristics of adolescent PDs. In addition, they contributed to a better differentiation between adolescent PDs. The present findings suggest that adolescent PDs are more than extreme, maladaptive variants of higher order normal personality traits. Adolescent PDs seem to encompass characteristics that may be more completely covered by dimensions of abnormal personality. Developmental issues and implications of the findings are discussed. [source]


    Recurrent Personality Dimensions in Inclusive Lexical Studies: Indications for a Big Six Structure

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2009
    Gerard Saucier
    ABSTRACT Previous evidence for both the Big Five and the alternative six-factor model has been drawn from lexical studies with relatively narrow selections of attributes. This study examined factors from previous lexical studies using a wider selection of attributes in 7 languages (Chinese, English, Filipino, Greek, Hebrew, Spanish, and Turkish) and found 6 recurrent factors, each with common conceptual content across most of the studies. The previous narrow-selection-based six-factor model outperformed the Big Five in capturing the content of the 6 recurrent wideband factors. Adjective markers of the 6 recurrent wideband factors showed substantial incremental prediction of important criterion variables over and above the Big Five. Correspondence between wideband 6 and narrowband 6 factors indicate they are variants of a "Big Six" model that is more general across variable-selection procedures and may be more general across languages and populations. [source]


    Understanding the Search for Meaning in Life: Personality, Cognitive Style, and the Dynamic Between Seeking and Experiencing Meaning

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 2 2008
    Michael F. Steger
    ABSTRACT Although several theories assert that understanding the search for meaning in life is important, empirical research on this construct is sparse. Three studies provide the first extensive effort to understand the correlates of the search for meaning in a multistudy research program. Assessed were relations between search for meaning and well-being, cognitive style, and the Big Five, Big Three, Approach/Avoidance, and Interest models of personality, with a particular emphasis on understanding the correlates of search for meaning that are independent of presence of meaning. Conceptual models of the relation between search and presence were tested. Findings suggest that people lacking meaning search for it; the search for meaning did not appear to lead to its presence. Study 3 found that basic motive dispositions moderated relations between search for meaning and its presence. Results highlight the importance of basic personality dispositions in understanding the search for meaning and its correlates. [source]


    Spiritual But Not Religious?

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2006
    Evidence for Two Independent Dispositions
    ABSTRACT Some psychologists treat religious/spiritual beliefs as a unitary aspect of individual differences. But a distinction between mysticism and orthodox religion has been recognized by scholars as well as laypersons, and empirical studies of "ism" variables and of "spirituality" measures have yielded factors reflecting this distinction. Using a large sample of American adults, analyses demonstrate that subjective spirituality and tradition-oriented religiousness are empirically highly independent and have distinctly different correlates in the personality domain, suggesting that individuals with different dispositions tend toward different styles of religious/spiritual beliefs. These dimensions have low correlations with the lexical Big Five but high correlations with scales (e.g., Absorption, Traditionalism) on some omnibus personality inventories, indicating their relevance for studies of personality. [source]


    Lexical Studies of Indigenous Personality Factors: Premises, Products, and Prospects

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 6 2001
    Gerard Saucier
    The rationale for lexical studies rests on the assumption that the most meaningful personality attributes tend to become encoded in language as single-word descriptors. We articulate some key premises of the lexical approach and then review a number of studies that have been conducted examining the factor structure of personality descriptors extracted from dictionaries. We compare lexical studies in English and 12 other languages, with attention to delineating consistencies between the structures found in diverse languages. Our review suggests that the Anglo-Germanic Big Five is reproduced better in some languages than in others. We propose some organizing rules for lexical factor structures that may be more generalizable than the contemporary Big-Five model. And, we propose several candidate structural models that should be compared with the Big Five in future studies, including structures with one, two, and three very broad factors, an alternative five-factor structure identified in Italian and Hungarian studies, and a seven-factor structure represented in Hebrew and Philippine studies. We recommend that in future studies more attention be paid to middle-level personality constructs and to examining the effects of methodological variations on the resulting factor structures. [source]


    Analyses of Digman's Child-Personality Data: Derivation of Big-Five Factor Scores From Each of Six Samples

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2001
    Lewis R. Goldberg
    One of the world's richest collections of teacher descriptions of elementary-school children was obtained by John M. Digman from 1959 to 1967 in schools on two Hawaiian islands. In six phases of data collection, 88 teachers described 2,572 of their students, using one of five different sets of personality variables. The present report provides findings from new analyses of these important data, which have never before been analyzed in a comprehensive manner. When factors developed from carefully selected markers of the Big-Five factor structure were compared to those based on the total set of variables in each sample, the congruence between both types of factors was quite high. Attempts to extend the structure to 6 and 7 factors revealed no other broad factors beyond the Big Five in any of the 6 samples. These robust findings provide significant new evidence for the structure of teacher-based assessments of child personality attributes. [source]


    The Non-Evaluative Circumplex of Personality Adjectives

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 4 2001
    Gerard Saucier
    In judgments about personality, descriptive and evaluative aspects are ordinarily combined; separating them can be important both theoretically and practically. Study 1 showed that two similar descriptive factors can be found in analyses of personality terms, selected independently in English and in German and using different methods to control for evaluation. The factors relate to two pairs of independent axes suggested by previous work: Assertive-Unassertive and Tight-Loose, or alternatively, Interactional Orientation (Extraversion Introversion) and Affective Orientation. These two pairs of axes are shown to be rotations of each other, and to form the prime non-evaluative circumplex. As in previous studies, non-evaluative scales elicited higher levels of self-peer agreement than did more typical evaluation-confounded scales. Study 2 showed that adjective scales for the octants of this circumplex have circular ordering, can fit even very stringent constraints of a circumplex model, have mild to strong isomorphism with the interpersonal circumplex, but represent somewhat broader constructs, and are systematically related to the Big Five and the Big Three personality factors. [source]


    A Structured Interview for the Assessment of the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Facet-Level Relations to the Axis II Personality Disorders

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 2 2001
    Timothy J. Trull
    The Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model (SIFFM; Trull & Widiger, 1997) is an 120-item semistructured interview that assesses both adaptive and maladaptive features of the personality traits included in the five-factor model of personality, or "Big Five." In this article, we evaluate the ability of SIFFM scores to predict personality disorder symptomatology in a sample of 232 adults (46 outpatients and 186 nonclinical college students). Personality disorder symptoms were assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R; Hyler & Rider, 1987). Results indicated that many of the predicted associations between lower-order personality traits and personality disorders were supported. Further, many of these associations held even after controlling for comorbid personality disorder symptoms. These findings may help inform conceptualizations of the personality disorders, as well as etiological theories and treatment. [source]


    The Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives: Personality Profiles, Interaction Styles, and the Things They Leave Behind

    POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    Dana R. Carney
    Although skeptics continue to doubt that most people are "ideological," evidence suggests that meaningful left-right differences do exist and that they may be rooted in basic personality dispositions, that is, relatively stable individual differences in psychological needs, motives, and orientations toward the world. Seventy-five years of theory and research on personality and political orientation has produced a long list of dispositions, traits, and behaviors. Applying a theory of ideology as motivated social cognition and a "Big Five" framework, we find that two traits, Openness to New Experiences and Conscientiousness, parsimoniously capture many of the ways in which individual differences underlying political orientation have been conceptualized. In three studies we investigate the relationship between personality and political orientation using multiple domains and measurement techniques, including: self-reported personality assessment; nonverbal behavior in the context of social interaction; and personal possessions and the characteristics of living and working spaces. We obtained consistent and converging evidence that personality differences between liberals and conservatives are robust, replicable, and behaviorally significant, especially with respect to social (vs. economic) dimensions of ideology. In general, liberals are more open-minded, creative, curious, and novelty seeking, whereas conservatives are more orderly, conventional, and better organized. [source]